Culture, structure, and
agency operate dialectically to challenge and appropriate mainstream CSR
discourse, whereby subaltern communities of interest may resist corporate
This article thus seeks to re-open the
politics of CSR as a crucial area of debate and research, and urges for its
continued openness to avoid the erasure of valuable alternative perspectives.
From the specific examples cited in this article (i.e., CSR by and resistance
against Tata Motors, Vedanta, Monsanto, Union Carbide, and the National Thermal
Power Corporation, among others), it should be apparent that he regard CSR in
the broadest sense. That is, he take CSR to be the responsible relations ,
communicatively formed, and between firms and societies , rather than just ad
hoc or even particularly designed/defined ventures and programs. Far from being
exhaustive, the CCA perspective offered here is meant to draw further critiques
and considerations of these relations from across the research spectrum –
critical, post- positivist, strategic, postcolonial, and so on.
By way of concluding this essay, he offer some
directions for future CSR research, not necessarily restricted to developing
and emerging nation contexts. First, the CCA’ s contextualized consideration of
culture, such that it is both embedded in everyday structures of organizational
practice and State policy, and actively practiced by individuals and groups,
suggests that scholars should connect the micro and macro realms of CSR
vis-à-vis culture. Second, this essay calls for a broader lens to CSR, beyond
what companies and NGOs say and do, to the lived experience of communities
impacted by CSR efforts, and how they may “speak back” to dominant
actors. Third, researchers might consider adopting “an activist
stance” (Dutta 2009) that cautions against taking corporate or NGO
discourse at face value and deconstructing their underlying ideologies,
especially the benefits accruing to key corporate and State actors.
Postcolonial and feminist scholars (e.g., Spivak 1987; Tuhiwai Smith 1999) have
demonstrated at length that this is no less rigorous than “objective”
science (which in fact is rife with unvoiced internal biases), but enhances the
research at hand via core humanist principles of reflexivity, care and empathy.
Finally, alternative logics of organizing and resisting that emanate from the
subaltern should be carefully attended (e.g., Scott 1985), to allow a
re-construction of CSR practice and norms in ways that do not trample over
indigenous people’s rights and liberties.
His goal here is not to craft a taxonomy of
strategies and tactics for communities, but to highlight alternative
interpretations that may radically alter our interpretations of the cultural,
structural, and agentic in business-society relations.
Koushalya et al (2013)
studied the various issues related to CSR in pre and post globalization in
India and the status of CSR in Indian corporate sector. They provide valuable
information to the company and other stakeholder. Further, they also found and
suggested that there should be fundamental transformation from the charity
oriented approach (shareholder) to stakeholder’s oriented approach.
Prabhakar and Mishra (2013)
studied the status of CSR in India and related challenges. Further they found
that the various challenges of CSR which were due to lack of budget allocation,
lack of support from employees, lack of professionalism, lack of knowledge.
Sharma and Kiran (2013)
studied the CSR practices countries wise from 1975 to 2011. They study the
changing developments of CSR practices and the importance of these factors for
undertaking CSR practices. All these related factors helped in formulating the
strategy and implementation of social responsibility factors. They found that
more and more companies showed their interest and commitments towards CSR in
order to improve their company’s image and goodwill.
(Tripathi, Kaushal, &
On the basis of their study they lastly conclude that illusion of triple bottom
line is nothing but it form a basis for firm to market their product through
green washing and befooling the customer. In reality there is no social bottom
line exist for the firm. It is just an analogous argument. The concept lacks
universal practicability as they cannot establish a balance between three Ps.
it seems that a business genuinely wishing to become green and sustainable is
caught between a rock and a hard place.(see example stead &
stead,1994;Weinberg,1998).also the concept states only the combination of prior
work, they didn’t find anything novel in
this concept. Hence there should be such concept developed which really
facilitates the objectives of triple bottom line and also this jargon should
not be much popularized because they didn’t find anything novel.
(Young and Thyil, 2013) This
research aims to explore the relationship between corporate governance and CSR:
What are the major factors that play a direct role in the establishment of this
relationship? Relationship between CSR and Governance? This research highlights
to importance of incorporation of CSR into systematised governance which include
the national governance system, economic environment and laws and regulation,
national culture, behavioural norms, shareholders and industry related impacts
In his study paper he basically focus on relationship between company business
and their impact on society with the help of managing their business in
different manner which includes corporate social responsibility (CSR). Thus, by
world standards companies in India have a long way to and a responsible
corporate citizen must cater proactively to majority stakeholders that go to
become a good corporate citizen. Since Visakhapatnam is an expanding industrial
hub with the growing presence of both public and private sector industries in
line with its status of ‘the city of destiny’ these industries can contribute a
lot to the welfare of its working community and society at large through CSR.
line of thinking can be that of developing the surrounding area of
Visakhapatnam with the concerted efforts of all well-meaning organisations in
the area. When such focused efforts are made the results are bound to be better
by an order of magnitude. To share and improve upon the best practices followed
by different organisations, frequent workshops may be planned. Earlier one such
initiative was taken by Vizag Steel in association with the Indian Society for
Training and Development (ISTD).