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Cuba has been influential in developing many musical styles in the 19th and 20th centuries. The roots of Cuban music was in the Cabildo which is best defined as a form of social club among African slaves brought to the island. The Cabildos preserved African cultural traditions. Santeria, which is a religion that spread after the emancipation in 1886, influenced Cuba’s music. The religion of Santeria influenced Cuba’s music with the implementation of percussion, which is an essential part of the religion. However, the slaves did not give up on their culture. They substituted the names of their African gods by substituting them with the names of the Catholic saints. For example, their god of war Chango became Saint Barbara. Each god is associated with colors, emotions, and Roman Catholic saints and drum patterns known as toques. Afro Cuban music consists of various musical instruments which belong to the percussion family of instruments. Such are the bongo drum, cowbell, conga, claves timbales, Maraca, Guiro, and the Cajon. Some of the most famous Afro Cuban songs are “Amor Verdadero,” “Pio Mentiroso,” “Alto Songo,” “Fiesta de la Rumba,” “A Toda Cuba le Gusta,” “Chan Chan.” In addition, some of the most popular artists of Afro Cuban music are Buena Vista, Tito Puente, Irakere, Mongo Santamaria, Dayme Arocena, Gonzalo Rubalcaba, Sierra Maestra among others. Afro Cuban type of music contributed to the development of jazz, salsa, tango, and many more. This type of music is composed of many different rhythms. Tribal Music of AfricaTribal music of Africa varies from tribe to tribe having distinct musical traditions due to the vastness of the continent. In Africa, the music is very important to religion since songs and music are used in rituals and religious ceremonies. In these ceremonies and /or rituals, people pass down stories from generation to generation as well as dance and sing to the music they play. The interesting fact about the tribal music of Africa is that it is passed down orally. This type of music frequently relies on percussion instruments of every variety. These instruments include Xylophones, djembes, drums, and tone-producing instruments such as the mbira or “thumb piano.” African tribal music was in some degree an influential part of many distinct music genres. Some of the genres are soco, calypso, and zouk, rumba, conga, bomba, cumbia, salsa, and samba. The music of the tribal music of Africa is a very rhythmic music. Another interesting fact about the tribal music of Africa is that it consists of a calling and responding aspect. In other words, the person or people singing would say sing something and the audience or another group of people would respond singing something back. This is not only done with singing but it also extends to the instruments as well. For instance, one drum will play a rhythmic pattern, and another drum would play the same pattern as if it were its echo. Moreover, this type of music consists of much improvisation. This is one of the reasons why the music is not written down. African musical instruments include a variety of drums, slit gongs, rattles and double bells, different types of harps, and harp-like instruments such as the Kora and the ngoni, as well as fiddles, many kinds of xylophone and lamellophone such as the mbira, and different types of wind instruments like flutes and trumpets. Some of the famous artists of African music are Miriam Makeba, Fela Kuti, Angelique Kidjo, Toumani Diabate, Oliver Mtukudzi, Oumou Sangare, Ismael Lo, among others. Indian RagaIndian Raga music has ancient roots and it was developed because of the reverence for arts for spirituality and entertainment purposes in Hinduism. Raga is historically an essential part of Hinduism along with the performance arts such as dance and music. Hindu people believe that music is a spiritual pursuit and a way to be liberated. According to Hinduism, music appeals to humans because they are hidden harmonies of the ultimate creation. The ragas are considered by Hindus, as a manifestation of the divine, a musical note treated as god with complex personality. A raga could be best described as a melodic rule set that a musician works with, According to Dorottya Fabian and others, a raga of the ancient Indian tradition is best described as “a non-constructible set in music,” just like non-constructible set in language for human communication. Musicians playing a raga is free to improvise certain degrees of the scale. Some ragas are Shape of You, Edm Thilana, Cheap Thrills, Enna Thavam Seithanai, Ragatone, Ragabond, Laali Laali, Nirupamana and Trikala Jathi. Some of the artists of Raga are Ravi Shankar, Ali Akbar Khan, Tansen, M. S. Subbuslakshmi, Hariprasad Chaurasia, Shivkumar Sharma, A. Kanyakumari, Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, among others.

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