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 Cross Culture CollaborationCross cultural friendships are usually formed, like any friendship, around some shared interests or characteristics. Pogrebin cautions that such friendships form around the appearance of sameness, but the individuals are never quite the same. Because the other is “the same but different,” one needs to maintain a “double-consciousness” which acknowledges “the importance of feeling both the same and different, of acknowledging ‘the essence of me,’ of understanding that friends need not transcend race or ethnicity but can embrace differences and be enriched by them. “Cross-boundary friendships face special barriers. Language differences and perceptions of accents can block friendship. Americans tend to perceive having an accent as a sign of ignorance. Alien styles of socializing may also make it difficult to begin friendships. For example, strongly sex-divided social spheres make couple-couple friendships difficult. Finally, unconscious racism is a potent barrier to friendship. Even established boundary-crossing friendships may encounter unique pitfalls. One party may try too hard to “go native,” and assimilate completely into the other’s culture. Misinterpreting intentions behind behavior is a regular problem. Such misunderstanding may be compounded by hyper-sensitivity or hyper-vigilance, an exaggerated sensitivity to possible slights, or an exaggerated and over-protective fear of giving offense. Cultural boundaries are not the only differences which pose difficulties for friendships. Gay-straight friendships must cross boundaries of both oppression and different culture. Disability raises issues around dependency and vulnerability, and fears of dependency and vulnerability. Popular stereotypes of the “superscript” who completely transcends her disability, or of disabled persons as childlike and asexual, both tend to block friendships between disabled and nondisabled people. Places which are not handicap accessible can also make such friendships difficult to negotiate. Age difference presents another type of boundary. Older people are often stereotyped as sick, boring, and inactive. Miscommunications may occur due to age-based psychological differences. Most basically, the author notes that there is a general preference for friends of the same age. This tendency is reinforced by widespread social age-based segregation.Racism “Slavery and Freedom”, “Race and Identity” in Antebellum America,” explores the problem that slavery posed to a country ostensibly founded on principles of freedom and equality. By the mid- nineteenth century, the nation had become, to quote Abraham Lincoln, like a “house divided against itself,” embroiled in a domestic struggle over slavery that created irresolvable tensions among the North, the South, and the West. Many Americans concluded that the only solution lay in transforming American culture, and writers, both black and white, responded by creating a revolutionary literature committed to the overthrow of slavery. Autobiographies by former slaves, polemical speeches and editorials, and sentimental novels confronted their audiences with powerful narratives of the destructiveness and cruelty of slavery. All of the writers discussed shares an interest in the role of race in American culture as well as a commitment to promoting social reform. Focusing on such diverse issues as the enslavement of Native Americans in California and the implications of cross-dressing and racial passing, these texts help illuminate the ways abolitionist writers both challenged traditional myths about America and helped to create new ideals. By exploring problems of slavery and identity in antebellum texts, it provides insight into the question of why race has remained a constant and controversial issue in American culture and literature. As well as the differences among men by class, race, sexuality,  and age. More information about this series, he material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Consideration of disability in the Crafts’ narrative is not a matter of negating other critics’ arguments, but rather of enhancing and completing them, particularly those which argue for the narrative’s portrayal of a mutually constitutive relationship between race, gender, and class. Famous crafter, Sarah Brusky, for example, is concerned with how the narrative “highlights the importance of gender to constructions of race,” especially to the white race.  People  argues similarly that the narrative demonstrates the unfixed boundaries of race, gender, and class through Ellen’s transgression of those boundaries, but suggests that gender ultimately emerges as more fixed than either race or class. Environmentalist, Laura Browder claims that the narrative demonstrates “what happens when people apply the logic of class to a construct of race,” based on American beliefs in the fluidity of class and the fixity of racial identity. A Crafter, Marjorie Garber is concerned to show how the figure of Ellen Craft as transvestite displaces “social anxiety from one category to another “. In these and other critics’ analyses of the crafter, Ellen Craft’s “tripartite disguise”, the fourth crucial element of that disguise is invisible.Protecting the DisabilitiesMy old master had the reputation of being a very humane and Christian man, but he thought nothing of selling my poor old father, and dear aged mother, at separate times, to different persons, to be dragged off never to behold each other again, till summoned to appear before the great tribunal of heaven. But, oh! what a happy meeting it will be on that day for those faithful souls. I say a happy meeting, because I never saw persons more devoted to the service of God than they. But how will the case stand with those reckless traffickers in human flesh and blood, who plunged the poisonous dagger of separation into those loving hearts which God had for so many years closely joined together nay, sealed as it were with his own hands for the eternal courts of heaven? It is not for me to say what will become of those heartless tyrants. I must leave them in the hands of an all-wise and just God, who will, in his own good time, and in his own way, avenge the wrongs of his oppressed people. I am in duty bound to add, that while a great majority of such men care nothing for the happiness of the women with whom they live, nor for the children of whom they are the fathers, there are those to be found, even in that heterogeneous mass of licentious monsters, who are true to their pledges. But as the woman and her children are legally the property of the man, who stands in the anomalous relation to them of husband and father, as well as master, they are liable to be seized and sold for his debts, should he become involved. 

 

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