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Concrete operation: According to Piaget, at about age
7, children enter the stage of concrete operation and begin to use mental
operations to solve concrete (actual) problems. Children now can think
logically because they can take multiple aspects of a situation into account.
However, their thinking is still limited to real situations in the here and
now. This is significant because children in the stage of concrete operations
can perform many tasks at a much higher level than they could in the
preoperational stage. They have a better understanding of spatial concepts,
causality, categorization, inductive and deductive reasoning, conservation, and
number.  For example, during a visit to
the zoo, Asher, who loves dinosaurs, asks his mom, is that rhinoceroses have
warm blood, and dinosaurs have warm blood. This is important because after that
we found out that Asher has just engaged to deductive reasoning. Causality:
Piaget maintained that preoperational children couldn’t yet reason logically
about cause and effect. For example, Luis may think that his “bad”
thoughts or behavior caused his own or his sister’s illness or his parents’
divorce. This is important because everyday conversations with their parents,
the children do show flexible causal reasoning.


Categorization: includes such relatively sophisticated abilities as
serration, transitive inference, and class inclusion, all which improve
gradually between early and middle childhood. By 7 or 8, children can grasp the
relationships among a group of sticks on sight and arrange them in order of
size. Transitive inference is the ability to infer a relationship between two
objects from the relationship between each of the them and a third object. For
example, Catharine is shown three sticks: a yellow one, a green one, and a blue
one. She is shown that the yellow stick is longer than the green one, and the
green one is longer than the blue one. If Catharine can engage in transitivity
without physically comparing the yellow and the blue sticks, she immediately
says the yellow one is longer than the blue one (Piaget 220). Centration:
According to Piaget, states that centration is tendency of preoperational
children to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others. For
instance, nothing the height of a glass juice but not the width. This is an
immature area of preoperational thought for children age 3 and 5. Centration
considered the one of the main important and main characteristics of
preoperational thoughts in Piaget’s theory.

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Conservation is two equal things remain so if their appearance is
altered, so as nothing is added or taken away. In piaget’s classic conservation
of liquid task, a child is shown two identical clear glasses, each short and
wide and each holding the same amount of water. For example, once Justin can imagine
restoring the original state of the water by pouring it back into the other
glass, he will realize the amount of water in both glasses must be the same.
This is important because the experiment shows that even when we change the two
equal things, their appearance still the same.


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