Concepts though expressed by the words are not merelywords. Concepts are the representations of the ideas about the world around us.A conceptual analysis is the process of clarifying the meaning of an idea or aconcept. Frank Jackson contends that conceptual analysis is required as afundamental segment of so-called serious metaphysics and that it also doesexplanatory work in representing such phenomena as categorization, meaning change,communication, and linguistic understanding. According to Milos Kosterec theaim of the conceptual analysis is to examine the place of a concept in theconceptual network of a language or a theory.
Semanticand Etymological analysis. Oftenscholars undergo harsh discussions over the definitions of the concepts. It isdifficult to identify which definitions are the rights or wrongs. At mostpeople can agree on preferred or dominant definitions of concepts but eventhese usually change over time being affected by the new social economicpolitical or cultural realities. The original and traditional definition of thedemocracy is rule by the people. Antique democracy also known as directdemocracy was a form of political regime in which people decided policyinitiatives directly.
It should be noted though that Plato “by the people”meant the government by the poor and uneducated against the rich and educated. Simplybecause the scope of the population cannot empower each citizen to ruledirectly different concepts such as representative democracy (is one in whichpeople fairly and freely elect their representatives who are accountable tothem) were found to describe new types of democracy. Another type of democracywhich is considered one of the most successful democracies evolved because of theconcerns about the idea that life should be “fair’. Social democracy is apolitical system that supports economic and social interventions in the generalinterest aimed at promotion of social justice.Democracy is an essentially contested concept, becausesocial scientists do not have commonly accepted understanding on how democraticgovernance should be initiated and maintained. W.
B. Gallie introduced the termessentially contested concept, explaining that people mean different thingswhen using the same word. Ideal democracy described by the Dahl for examplefinds democratic regime as a combination of the following features: effectiveparticipation, equality in voting, informed electorate, citizen’s control ofthe agenda, inclusion and the fundamental rights (“equal and effectiveopportunities for learning about relevant alternative policies and their likelyconsequences”1).Joseph Schumpeter on the other hand gives a more minimalist definition ofdemocracy stating that democracy can be achieved through competition amongleadership groups, which vie for the electorate’s support during periodicelections before a wide electorate. Parties and elections in SchumpeterianDemocracy play a substantial role in this largely procedural account of thedemocratic process. Huntington’s approach on Democracy is more pessimistic one.”The efficient working of a democratic political system”, as he states,”requires a certain lack of activity or interest of a number of individuals orgroups.
” “Just as there are desirable limits to economic growth”, he continues,”so there are potentially desirable limits to the indefinite expansion ofpolitical democracy.”2 Specifyingthe concept by relating it to a broader concept and theory. Ledyaev in his Power:A conceptual analysis emphasizes three main functions of social conceptswhich determine their role in theoretical studies and empirical research. “First”,as he notes, “concepts are basic units of theories, they accumulate andtransmit a substantial part of our knowledge of the real world and makepossible its description and explanation.
“3 Politicalregime can be said a broader concept in which democracy as a concept can bederived from. Political regime in my understanding is the way in which acountry is governed, how government is organized and how the government makepolicies. The construction of democracy is important because, in my opiniondemocracy is the best political regime which 1) prevents the people who holdpower abusing it and using it for their own gain (keeping rulers from becominga tyrants); 2) protects the freedom of the people as individuals and 3)protects the interests and demands of people while policy-making. Due to thesereasons there are several democratization theories which tries to explain whataffects the foundation of democracy as a political regime and how to sustainit. Modernization theory introduced by Lipset draws apositive correlation between democracy and socio-economic development. Thebasic idea here is that economic development leads to development of democracy.
Economic development creates much more complex societies than the sort ofpeasant societies in the distant past, which makes it much more difficult fordictators to keep tabs on everyone. “The more well-to-do a nation, the greaterthe chances that it will sustain democracy” (Lipset 1959). To demonstrate thevalidity of his theory Lipset proposes 5 different indicators through whichsocio-economic development of the state can be assessed, which in turn as hedefends lead to the installation of democracy. Those indicators are – increasedstandard of living (per capita income, access to medical care etc.), access tocommunication media, industrialization, increased level of educations (literacyand formal education) and urbanization. Distinguishthe concept from other elements: Different elements of the democracy can be detected from theconceptualization of democracy. The rule of law: No one in a democracy is above the law, not even aking or an elected President and everyone is subject to the law.
“High-quality democracy requires a truly democratic ruleof law that ensures political rights, civil liberties, and mechanisms ofaccountability which in turn affirm the political equality of all citizens andconstrain potential abuses of state power” (O’Donnell 2004). Political participation: Politicalparticipation does not merely imply voting for a new congressman. It goesbeyond that involving serving on a jury, which ensures that people who arecharged with a crime are judged by people like them; conducting public protestswith the hope that your actions will influence initiate change in a particulararea of politics and engage in public consultations in order to make youropinions and feelings known. Freedom: Freedoms are related to thefundamental human rights. Three types of rights can be distinguished here:political (to vote, to run for the office), civil rights (freedom of movement,freedom of religion and right to form and join organizations) and socioeconomic(rights to private property and entrepreneurship). No single personarticulating his or her opinion (freedom of expression) should fear of beingdismissed, prosecuted or even kidnapped in a truly democratic climate.
Equality: It simply means involvingeveryone, no matter who they are. “Many of theprevious dimensions imply or require—and the very word democracy commonlysymbolizes—the formal political and legal equality of all citizens. Equality isan ideal that is never perfectly achieved, even in strictly political terms.”4Although there is less agreement among politicalscientists about when the political regime can be considered as democratic,authors put forward different measurements of democracy. As Charles Hauss forexample writes “we do not think thatdemocracy has truly taken root until at least three national elections have been held.
Anothercriterion raised by many experts is the peacefultransfer of power from one political party or coalition to the former opposition.Such a transition is critical because it indicates that the major politicalforces in a country are prepared to settle their disputes without violence andto accept that they will all spend periods of time out of office.”5 References:Charles Hauss (2003) Democratization available at: https://www.beyondintractability.
org/essay/democratization Gianranco Pasquino (2009) Samuel P. Huntington: Political order and the Clash of CivilizationsG. O’Donnell (2004) Why the rule of law matters? Journal of Democracy Volume 15, Number4, pp. 32-46Larry Diamond and Leonardo Morlino (2004) An overview: The Quality of DemocracyRobert Dahl (2006) OnPolitical Equality Yale University PressValeri Ledyaev (1998) Power: A Conceptual Analysis NY PressW.
B. Gallie (1995-1996) Essentially Contested Concepts: Proceedings of the Aristotelian SocietyVol. 56, pp.
167-198 Wiley Press 1 Robert Dahl (2006) On Political Equality 2 Gianranco Pasquino Samuel P. Huntington: Political order andthe Clash of Civilizations3 Valeri Ledyaev (1998) Power: A Conceptual Analysis NY Press.4 Larry Diamond and LeonardoMorlino (2004) An overview: The Qualityof Democracy5 Charles Hauss (2003) Democratization