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techniques improved considerably the animation production in terms of efficiency
and costs because traditional animation requires more time and labour force to
create animations. One recent example is the movie Loving Vincent, that
required more than a hundred animators/painters to create the animated movie.

Besides cost and efficiency advantages, the results achieved with the 3D
animation are not possible to achieve with traditional animation. For example,
if one considers the point of view that composes of each frame, it has a huge
impact on the storytelling and in the viewer experience. Changes in perspective
and the point of view of the frames have a bigger impact on traditional
animation because it cannot be easily done, while in it can be easily changed
in 3D projects. Considering this, computational technologies are more error friendly
and also allow the animators and producers to be more creative because they can
try more option during the production process.

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example, the scripted animation technique is based on animated frames and the
interpolation of it in the in-between frames. In the traditional animation, the
illusion of movement was created through the illustration frame-by-frame, with
an illustrator creating the key-frames frames and a team of animators working
in the in-between frames. Computer animation, on the other hand, the key-frames
are set and the in-between animation frames are generated automatically by the
system through interpolation. One technique to animate the in-between frames is
the linear interpolation (Fig. 13), that allows calculating new positions at
equal intervals along a straight line (Spalter, 1999). You determine the number
of positions calculated and thus the number of frames created. There is also
the nonlinear interpolation (Fig. 14), that creates a more realistic motion
effect. In the case of frames and in-between frames, the computational
techniques reduced the time and also the production costs, because the computer
substituted a number of people that would be involved in the process of drawing
the frames. At the same time, the accuracy in terms of the ‘pencil strokes’ of
the draw are becoming standardized, what would be hard to achieve in the
hand-drawing process. For example, by observing the classic Snow White and the
Seven Dwarfs from Disney, it can be noticed some little changes in the formats
of the animated objects and characters, also the flow of movement is not as
realistic as can be achieved with computer technologies.

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