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comprises three procedures which are as follows: 1. Borrowing: in this procedure, the source language word is directly transferred into the target language as it is (Munday, 2001). 2. Calque: this is a special sort of borrowing in which the source language expression or structure is transferred to the target language in literal translation (Munday, 2001). 3.

Literal translation: This is word-for-word translation which is described by Vinay and Darbelnet as being the most common translation procedure between languages of the same family and culture (Munday, 2001).Oblique Translation:In those cases where literal translation is not possible, translators could employ oblique translation which covers four procedures: 4. Transposition: “this is the change of one part of speech for another (e.

g. noun for verb) without changing the sense” (Munday, 2001, p. 87). 5.

Modulation: this process “changes the semantics and point of view of the SL” (Munday, 2001, p. 88). 6. Equivalence: In Vinay and Darbelnet’s categorization, the term equivalence refers to cases where “languages describe the same situation by different stylistic or structural means” (Munday, 2001, p. 89). 7. Adaptation: this process involves “changing the cultural reference when a situation in the source culture does not exist in the target culture” (Munday, 2001, p.

89).     Peter Newmark (1988) offers some other translation strategies. The strategies proposed by Newmark are as follows: transference; naturalization; cultural equivalent; functional equivalent; descriptive equivalent; synonymy; through translation; shifts or transpositions; modulation; recognized translation; compensation; componential analysis; paraphrase; couplets; notes, additions, and glasses.

     In 1968, the German scholar, Otto Kade (as cited in Pym, 2010), proposed four types of equivalence which are as follows: 1. One-to-one equivalence (Eins-zu-Eins): In this type of equivalence, one source language item corresponds to one target language item. Kade calls this type of equivalence ‘total equivalence’.


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