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  Clinical Classification referred
to two types of aggression. The first is: impulsive, or hot-blooded affective, reactive,
defensive,” aggression. Which defined as un controlled response to physical or
verbal aggression initiated by others that is relatively uncontrolled and
emotionally charged. Contrary to the second form of aggression is referred to as:
predatory, instrumental, proactive, or  cold-blooded
aggression. This type of aggression is described as a controlled and purposeful
aggression absent in emotion that is used to accomplish a goal, including the
domination and control of others. views aggression in humans as either
predominantly affective or predatory. Similarly, categorizes childhood
aggression as either proactive or reactive, while admitting that very few
aggressive acts are purely reactive or proactive in nature. In the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual—IV reference is made to Intermittent Explosive Disorder,
a form of clinical aggression like reactive aggression in which the individual
for an intermittent, short period of time loses control and becomes
inordinately aggressive (Atikins ,1993).

     According to (Atikins ,1993) model aggression
classifies into 2 types:  instrumental
(beneficial agreeing) and hostile functions (non-beneficial aggression).
Instrumental aggression has positive impact on the aggressor unrelated to the
victim’s discomfort, On the other hand hostile aggression has negative impact
upon the aggressor and the victim, which has no advantage to the aggressor.

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Maternal aggression, induced by a threatening stimulus in the proximity
of the mother’s young

Instrumental aggression, induced by any of the situations already
described, but strengthened by learning

Territorial aggression, induced by the presence of an intruder in the
home or territory of a resident

Irritable aggression, induced by the presence of any attachable object.
The tendency to display irritable aggression is enhanced by any stressor, such
as isolation, electrical shock, and food deprivation.

Inter-male aggression, induced by the presence of a novel male
conspecific in a neutral arena

Fear-induced aggression induced by threats and always preceded by escape

Predatory aggression, induced by the presence of a natural object of

  Stimulus-based classification,
external and internal stimuli are significant antecedents of aggression
classified aggressive behavior according to seven stimulus situations that
elicited the behavior. These antecedents are:

         Differences in Gender Usually we hear that
males are more aggressive that females. Although according to at the age 14 to
25 both gender tend to engage in aggressive behaviors and commit violent crimes
but females aggressiveness start 2 years earlier then male also females tend to
commit indirect aggression, such as isolation of others from their social group
and verbal aggression (libeling) in-other hand, male engage in direct
aggression and (physical fight ) usually it cause serious harm unlike females aggressions
(Atikins ,1993) .

Despite various classification systems for aggression they overlap significantly,
with each system having a slightly different emphasis. aggression Forms composed
of: the instrumental and the positive versus negative classification, stimulus-based
classification versus hostile classification, clinical classification (Smith,2008).

   Theoretical perspectives on aggression suggest
that different subtypes of aggressions present. It is important to think of the
complicated nature of aggression because different factors combine with
different physiological and mental processes to create distinct forms of
aggression (Smith,2008).

       Historically, some researchers of human and
animal behavior, like Freud and Konrad Lorenz, claimed that aggressive behavior
are innate on the other hand, others have suggested that it is a learnt
behavior(ÖZÇEL?K,2017). Its most probably that there are both genetic and
environmental significant addition resulting in aggressive behavior, and some
of the biological and environmental antecedents of aggression are reviewed
below. Nowadays, most of researchers are concentrating on social learning,
child abuse, neglect, TV violence, modeling, family violence, structural and
functional brain abnormalities, hormones, and neurotransmitters (Smith,2008).

Literature review









In our life and the world around, us we meet many people who are
aggressive in one occasion and soft and polite in the other. Is it their
nature? What is aggression? Why anyone become aggressive?  Is it true? And to what extend the proverb
that says (to gain your right back and to protect your existence you must be
aggressive some time). Is it part of our human behavior that neutrally exists
and activated as necessary? Or is it acquired as we grow in stressful condition
and aggressive environment? Many psychologist, anthropologists and biologists
were curious to study the aggression phenomena. And to find its origin, types, condition,
cues that precede it, human and animal aggression behaviors. This concept
analysis paper aimed to define how the concept of aggressiveness has been
defined in the literature. And to clarify the attributes of aggressiveness and
identify antecedents that influence the perception and the possible
consequences. A model case demonstrates how aggressiveness is linked to these
critical attributes. A borderline case and a contrary case are presented to
differentiate the concept of aggressiveness from other concepts. Empirical
referents demonstrate the current perspective of the concept. The dictionary
definition of “Aggression is that it is the action of a state in violating by
force the rights of another state, particularly its territorial rights; an
unprovoked offensive, attack, invasion”( 2017,Dictionary). Aggression in
psychology defined as the behaviors that are
intended to either harm own self or other humans or object around us in the
environment physically or mentally. Operationally it is the number of times the
aggressor attempts to, or succeeds in physically assaulting, verbally insulting or irritating a victim people
object and animal.


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