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Chemotherapy also known as chemo is a type of cancer treatment that consists of drugs that are used to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is a very widely used method of curing cancer, it cures cancer by slowing down or completely stopping the splitting or growth of cancer cells. Normal cells are different from cancer cells. Cancer cells are cells that are not stopping to grow and continue to split continuously without stopping . Normal cells eventually stop their own growth but these cancer cells are very different, they won’t stop growing. Normal cells remain in the region where they began but cancer cells do not do that. Cancer cells usually go to other tissues and they also have the capability to spread even further around the body. Normal cells grow as a part of childhood and are normal during growth or to repair injured tissues. Cancer cells fail to recognize signal that tell them to stop growing or commit apoptosis when the cell becomes older or has been damaged. Chemotherapy is used for two things against cancer. One of these two things is to cure the cancer in the body, lessen the chance for the cancer cells to invade and spread in the body again, or to stop or slow the growth of the cancer. The other reason chemotherapy is used is to shrink tumors, a swelling in the body because of the overgrowth of cells in an area, that are causing distress, pain, or problems to the patient. Chemotherapy might be effective against cancer but it is definitely not perfect. Chemotherapy has a multitude of side effects that are discomforting, problematic, and annoying ot the person that is going through the process of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy has the ability to affect any of the human’s body systems but some of the body systems in a human are more prone to getting affected more harshly than others by chemotherapy. These are the digestive tract, hair follicles, bone marrow, mouth, and reproductive system. Chemotherapy also has the ability to to  lower white blood cells. The immune system uses these white blood cells to fight against illnesses. This means that white blood cells are very important in the immune system. They help prevent illnesses and help to fight infections. Chemotherapy drugs also cause a low platelet count. A low amount of platelets can cause bruises and can also make a person bleed more easily than normal. Other side effects and symptoms also include nose bleeds, bloody vomit or blood in stool, and worse than normal menstruation. Chemotherapy drugs affect your nervous system. The nervous system controls thoughts, emotions, and other things of that nature. Chemotherapy drugs have a chance of affecting the memory of a person. For this reason it can be called “chemo fog”. It can also cause pain, weakness, numbness, and a thing called peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is the sensation or tingling found in the hands or feet. Another system that chemotherapy drugs affect is the integumentary system which consists of the skin, hair, and also nails. Hair loss is probably the most popular and infamous out of all of the side effects caused by chemo. Hair loss can occur on any part of the body. It can happen from the legs all the way to the eyelashes and eyebrows. The thing is that the hair loss is not permanent it is temporary. After a few weeks of the treatment the hair that was lost because of the chemotherapy will return. The drugs for chemotherapy can also cause minor skin irritations. Examples of these skin irritations are dryness, rashes, and itchiness. Chemotherapy also affects your Digestive System. Side effects include dry mouth and mouth sores. Then there is the yellow coating on your tongue and the metallic taste in your mouth.Food also might become distasteful leading to waste loss. The powerful drugs may also cause nausea and vomiting. Diarrhea and constipation are another side effect of Chemotherapy. There may be pressure and gas around the abdomen. Chemotherapy may also make the patient lose appetite and feel full even though they did not eat much. The drugs may hurt the cells around the Gastrointestinal Tract. People lose bone mass but Chemotherapy quickens the process since the loss of calcium. Osteoporosis due to cancer is usually more effective in women than men. Post- Menopausal women usually see their Menopausal coming back up again. Woman with breast cancer are at an increased risk of osteoporosis due to the fact of the drugs and the natural drop of  estrogen levels. Another system cancer can affect is the excretory system. This includes the kidney and the bladder. The kidney tries to eliminate the chemotherapy drugs through bowel movements. This can damage the kidneys and the bladder because of how strong the drugs are. When the kidneys are damaged it can lead to decreased urination, swelling of the hands, swelling of the feet and ankles, and migraines. When the bladder is irritated or damaged, it can cause the process of urination to become more frequent and more painful. When experiencing this, it is advised by many medical experts to drink more liquids to wash away the drugs. Medication given to reduce these pains can turn urine to and orange-red color. Another system that is affected by chemotherapy is the reproductive system. Chemotherapy can alter hormones and cause unprecedented changes to these hormones. In women, hormone changes can bring about many problems. Im men, it can

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