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Chapter 1



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culture in the Philippines puts a very high value on the family with the belief
that the family is the basic unit of society. Many researchers have explored
many facets about the family, such as established practices, patterns, trends
and issues on family life to discover and improve ways of securing the welfare of the family.

culture follows a unique set of tradition and practices in taking care of their
offspring. The parenting practices are established and are valued by the
community through transmitting these from one generation to the next,
(Bornstein & Lansford, 2010). Parenting practices are among the factors in
determining the temperament, characteristic and aspiration of the children.    

significant aspect of parenting practices is the maternal and child care practices that
involved delicate consideration all the time. These include the time when a
mother gets pregnant, delivers the baby and the period after child delivery.
These practices are founded on a set of cultural values of the community.
These practices are protected and preserved by the elders, and are shared and
transmitted to the younger

indigenous communities like the Matigsalug tribe in the San Fernando, Bukidnon,
maternal and childcare practices are present. 
The Matigsalug women or mothers attend to their pregnancy and
post-pregnancy needs based on their indigenous knowledge and on other sources
of knowledge that they acquired from the community. Also the local government
unit of San Fernando has provided health services for the people as part of
their municipality’s responsibility.  

is therefore the purpose of this
study to determine the
maternal and child care practices of Matigsalug women and how these practices
are related to their traditional knowledge. In line with this purpose, the researchers
determined how their maternal
and child care practices are preserved despite of the presence of health
services offered by the local government unit which are characterized by new
ways and new methods.

Framework of the

The  study 
was anchored  on the   organizational culture  of  Coakley and Scoble  (2003)which posited  that in order to improve
childbirth practice, people need to understand the way in which birth is
experienced by women and also the “internally consistent and mutually dependent
practices and beliefs that exist around it” .

Understanding organizational
culture is important because culture gives meaning, clarity, and direction to
the action of an organization and its members (Jordan & Davis-Floyd, 1993).
Organizational culture represents a collective set of expectations, definitions,
and memories that characterize how things happen in an organization. Cameron (1999) defined organizational
culture as a pattern of basic assumptions that a group of people has invented,
discovered, or developed in learning to cope with problems, such as external
adaptation and internal integration.

 According to Deal and Kennedy(1982),a
strong culture is a system of informal rules that dictate how people are to
behave most of the time, and as such they enable people to feel better about
what they do, encouraging them to work harder. Moreover, it seems that the
culture influences how people’s perceptions, thoughts, and feelings are related
to the length of time they live in this culture and to its age. Understanding
the nature of organizational culture is possible by simply observing the
group/organization functioning.

This study is supported by Larker’s Maternal and Child Health Care
Theory (1969) that 
the  transmission of   indigenous maternal and  child 
health  care  enabled people  to construct and  develop effective strategies   on healing 
and  care  techniques to cope  with physical  emotional and social illnesses. It  argued 
that  health  and 
disease  are  universals 
of  human concern which are  lived 
out according  to the  tenets 
of  culture-bound  ideational and behavioral process.

In the study of Ramos (2008), the Manobo-Matigsalug
pregnant women observe several taboos in orders to protect the infants’ lives
and health. They consult the Babaylan, their traditional birth attendant. In their
culture, the children’s health in the womb depends on how the mothers take care
of themselves; hence, they must be free from worries and stressful activities.
To be assured of the babies’ good health, the choice of food is a very
important factor to be observed. When the mother finally gives birth, the whole
community knows. The relatives and neighbors come to see and welcome the newly
born baby who is considered as the center of care and affection. The
Manobo-Matigsalug mothers need adequate knowledge in hygiene and nutrition to
improve their maternal and child health care. The local government should
support the tribe in developing the uses of herbal plants in their area. The
tribe needs information to be guided in the improvement of their life.

          This study is also
anchored on the provisions of Indigenous Peoples Rights Acts (IPRA) Law of 1997 the focus of which is on the development of all
indigenous communities, like the Matigsalug community. It is inherent in
the IPRA Law to respect the
traditional beliefs and practices of IP communities. The traditional maternal
healthcare practice is one of the most sensitive parts of indigenous knowledge
because of its significance in establishing a family.

          This study, aside from exploring
the maternal healthcare practices of the Matigsalug community, also determined
the beliefs related to it. This included the view of the Matigsalug mother
reflected by these beliefs.


Statement of the

       This study determined the maternal and childcare practices among Matigsalug parents of
Kalagangan, San Fernando, Bukidnon for the fiscal year 2017.

Specifically, it
sought to answer the following

1. What are the maternal and childcare practices of Matigsalug women  during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum

 2. What
are the maternal and childcare beliefs of Matigsalug         women during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period?


Significance of the


          This study aimed to
provide provided significant value and contribution to the following:

          Matigsalug Mothers. This study recognized the important
contribution of the Matigsalug mothers in establishing their families. The
presence and observance of the maternal healthcare practices assure them of
high regard and respect from the people in their community.

          Matigsalug Children.  The
children’s benefits from this study are the assured application of traditional
healthcare practices which guarantee the children’s good health.

          Matigsalug Community. With the result of this study, the Matigsalug
community acquired a system in preserving and enhancing their maternal
healthcare practices. In having this system, their community is assured of a
capacity to develop their community.

Healthcare provider. This study will
help the healthcare practitioners in their intervention in providing care to
Matigsalug mothers.

Local Government
Unit (LGU) and N0n-Government Organization (NGO). This study
provided indicators to strengthen their development plan for the Matigsalug
community especially in health services. The data and findings provided by this
study and justification to their projects.

Future researchers. The finding of
this study will draw enough interest on deeper understanding on the maternal
and childcare practices.





Delimitation of the

This study was delimited to the Matigsalug women in
Kalagangan, San Fernando, Bukidnon during the fiscal year 2017. The researchers
used Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to gather the needed data for this study. It
was also delimited to determine the childcare and maternal practices of
Matigsalug women during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum and the beliefs
they have in relation to this.

study used qualitative type of research with 6 Matigsalug women who were chosen
purposively as participants of this study. A modified questionnaire from Maureen
Ava Morales (2014) was utilized in this study.


Definition of Terms

          The following terms were defined
theoretically and operationally for better understanding.   

Health Care. Maternal health care starts from the
time of conceptions of the child. Hence, the pre and postnatal care of the
expectant mother is includes in the health care system. The postnatal care
covers maternal health care services after the delivery (Rogan & Solveña

In this study Maternal health care, is the state
or practice of the Matigsalug women in Kalagangan, San Fernando Bukidnon where
high-quality mother-infant interaction is increasingly focused on the
systematically observation of day-to-day relations between mother and infant.

Childcare. Childcare
is an action or skills of looking after child/children by a day-care center,
babysitter, or other provider. Child care, child minding, daycare or preschool
is the caring for and supervision of a child or children, usually from age six
weeks to age thirteen (WHO 2010).

In this study child care is one of the related
factors that a Matigsalug mother in Kalagangan,
San Fernando Bukidnon must give attention to her child/children, give
supervision and provide their basic needs.

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