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This chapter presents the review of literature
that has some bearing to the present study. The discussion focused on the
factors that challenged the working solo female parent underscoring financial m
emotional and time management aspects.

female solo parent is becoming a societal challenge as its number is increasing
rapidly. According to the study conducted by Support for Single Parents Caregivers (2009), the working solo
female parent is defined as a woman who takes good care of her children without
the help of any other person.


As cited from the
study of Dickey (2014), it stated that working solo female parents like all
other mothers, want the best for their children. But, affordability and quality
of childcare is also their problem. For solo parents it is not easy to raise
children especially when there is no one to help them. There are other options
for working female solo parents to help in rearing their child like paying
someone to take good care of their children. However, many solo parents could
not afford this because of economic or financial problem.

the study of Wheeler (2014), it revealed that 49.5 working solo parent female
parents are suffering in poverty. These working female solo parents received
only a small amount of income. From their small salary and single income it is
hard for them to budget all their daily expenses. They could notavoid shortage
in terms of their financial needs like when there are unexpected emergency,
when they lose their job for some reasons, and when they do not have any
savings from their previous work. This is really a big problem for them
economically. Sometimes working solo female parents with low salary rate are
usually engaged in loans like payday loans, loans refund anticipation checked,
and high interest credit cards. This make them suffer more in poverty because
of paying back in high interest rates and excessive fees.

to the study of Eamon, (2005) and Hochschild, (2003) the most important factor
that can help the children’s learning is the financial status of the family.
Working female solo parents suffer more on their financial status that could
affect their children’s education. Children’s performances in school are
affected and they get low scores because they could not afford to have text
books; could not pay their school fees, requirements and other school material
things. There are some working female solo parents who have enough money to
provide for the needs of their children. Usually these are solo mothers who are
inherently rich; those who have well-paying jobs; and those who have much property.
Fraser (2004) stated that having financial problems can affect the capacity of
working female solo parents to supervised and monitor their children’s
activities. Through this, children that come from solo parents families have
difficulties in their educational means. It makes them think to find jobs to
help their parents in their education. When children helped their solo mothers
work, they often have low performance in school, dropouts and lead them not to
succeed on their goals.


The study of
Lansford, Abbey, & Stewart (2001) showed that working female solo parents
experienced stress due to a lot of problems. They usually have to think and
finding ways on how to solve their problems without the help of other persons.
Working female solo parents have to juggle in a lot of activities like taking
care of their children and doing extra other work. This makes their body weak
and could cause illness. When their mother is sick, the children will also be
affected making them lonely and troubled.

(2011) claimed that working female solo parents that having a financial
problems could affect their emotional well-being. Through this, their children
will also be affected and it can give negative effects on their self-esteem and
behavior, too. Working female solo parent usually suffer in poverty and has
less emotional health because of pressure from their work and worry about their
lifestyle. This could lead to fatigue and emotional imbalance. They have less
time spent with their children especially those in adolescent stage. These
could cause their teen-age children to go out with friends who may not have
good influence on them, hence resulting ruin their lives. (Richardson et al.,
1993; Blum et al., 2000, as cited in Waruesporn, 2011).

cause of emotional stress to working female solo parents is because of the kind
of relationship that they have among person and environment.  Having a stressful relationship from people
and parenting duty of solo parents can really cause stress, finding employment,
finances, assistance from previous partner/spouses, family support and social
support (Lazarus, 1990). When it comes to parenting,working female solo parents
are easily stressed.

educational background of solo parents is really important when it comes to
finding jobs since it is the one way in determining what type of job will suit
to them.  Solo parents with good and
innovative educational background have the tendency not to suffer much stress
in finding jobs and parenting. They experienced more joy and new meaning of
life dealing with the new people and new environment (Nomaguchi & Brown,

population of working female solo parents nowadays is increasing and is
generally disadvantageous when correlated to health problems (Cairney et al,
2003).  There is much greater level of
physical and mental illnesses experience by working female solo parents
compared to mothers with partners.This makes them weak and insecure. Working
female solo parents are close to physical and mental health case.

et al.(2003) discovered that solo parents are not much responsive to the
destructive happenings they encountered because of the past experience of
stress and strain.  Through this, they
are already aware on dealing whatever hardships that comes their way. Compared
to married mothers, they do not have the experienced of hardship for the reason
that they have their partners to help and guide them in everything they do.
Thus, they are not much knowledgeable in dealing with risky things.

emotional stress to working female solo parents is the kind of relationship
that they have with persons and environment. Having a stressful relationship
from people and parenting duty of solo parents can really cause stress, finding
employment, finances, assistance from previous partner or spouses, family
support and social support (Lazarus, 1990).

According to Copeland
and Harbaugh (2005) working female solo parents are known to be prone in
stressful way of life in line to parenting. They encountered several challenges
when becoming parents such as financial strain, limited time and less support
(Harrison & Magill- Evans, 1996; Copeland & Harbaugh, 2005). Working
female solo parents experienced stress on the environment and surroundings they
have. They conducted a research on secondary analysis comparing 22 first time
single mothers to 52 married mothers determining parenting stress. They found
out that working female solo parents are prone to stress when it comes to
parenting and encountered many challenges. They advised an additional study on
what are the things that they need to do to lessen the stress that the working
female solo parents encountered in parenting. By helping working female solo
parents on these challenges, educational programs and early intervention would
help them to reduce the population and would lessen the parenting stress that
the solo parent parents experienced.



As stated by Rani
(2006) overload of work is one of the reasons that they cannot give the proper
care and enough time to their children. The time of a working female solo
parents rendered to their children and monitoring their child life while they
are busy in their work are affected due to a lot of difficulties. In this
situation they need to ask help from people whom they can trust to take care of
their children. When they are in work they should always communicate to their
children to see if they are okay and in that way to let the children know that
they are doing their best to do their responsibilities and to be good parents
to them.

solo parents have problems on their time management. They have to work for long
hours and have to balance the time for their work and time for their children.
When there are activities of their children in school and other occasion with
their children which they could not join because of their work, it makes them
guilty. Solo parents tend to feel like they have no time in involving
themselves in activities that they wanted. These include time to exercise, go
out with friends or even some alone time and if they get that personal time
they are usually very tired to carry out the activities. This sometimes leads
to the parent being antisocial and lonely (Molinari 2004, Spruell 2008).

female solo parents who spend less time with their children are not updated on
their children’s academic performance. They are too busy with their work to
earn money to support their families. Working female solo parents have busy
schedules that they cannot give proper time to have conversation with their
children, to help them with their school works or to check if they are joining
their class properly. The effect of this is that, their academic performance
will be affected because they may think that their parents do not care at all.
In addition, family structure has also a big impact on this. Working female
solo parents or step-parents have fewer expectations from their children’s
education performance unlike the complete families. The same situation is
experienced when it comes to monitoring their children’s school-work and
supervising them (Nan and McLanahan, 1991).

          Mothers with low-wage jobs often have
unstable, unpredictable or inflexible schedules. Working female solo parent
want the best for their children, yet their work schedules and lack of benefits
prevent them or hinders them from spending meaningful time with their children.
The childcare available to them is often of poor quality, which can be harmful
to children’s development.

          The disciplinary methods of solo
parents towards their children become stricter because of a lot of things that
they need to think. Tharps (2005) claimed that looking for a new relationship
is also a challenge for them, but they have a feeling of guilt towards their
children, especially when they go out without the presence of their children.
In this situation solo parents should explain to their children about this
matter so that their children will not feel jealous or so they will not
misunderstand it. They must explain to their children that this kind of
situation will possibly come. They also need to have new relationship to make
them feel happy and to relieve the stress that they feel.

female solo parent deals with many challenges in their lives that may lead to
various stressors. Their ability of being flexible, tough, have self-esteem,
have skills in solving problems and to be always positive in life, as well as,
upon external factors could help them survive and recover from all the
challenges they encountered. Support from family and friends can give a big
impact for the working female solo parent for them to be strong in coping with
the challenges they encountered (Fallon & Russo, 2003; Fujiura &
Yamaki, 2000).

there are a lot of challenges that the working female solo parents encountered
in their lives that can cause stress. Because of the stress that they feel it
will also possibly affect their family. Having the capability of being flexible
is the good way overcoming from the stress and hardship that they encountered
(Walsh, 1996). Working female solo parents that are flexible have the chance to
get rid from the emotional stressor that they feel. Working female solo parents
that have a strong emotion are capable to be always positive in their lives,
can think easily on how to solve problems that come their way, and can overcome
from the challenges that they encountered. They have the chance to seek help
from the people that surrounds them but still they can also get out from the
hardship on their own. Working female solo parents need to have greater
knowledge and perseverance in all the challenges that they encounter and give
much care towards their children (Forthun, Carannate & Diehl, 2011).

literature cited provided the researchers ideas and insights on what causes
problems among working solo parents. The financial unstableness can cause
additional emotional and time management problems. The gamut of all their
problems lies so much in the financial capacity of the solo parent. This can
cause them to be stressed such that their emotion and psychological well-being
is affected. Because of their financial problems, solo mothers have to work
leaving their children to fend for themselves or to have other guardian to
watch for them. These situations could cause some ripple effect in terms of
children’s upbringing, children’s education, quality time with children, proper
childcare, and especially in nurturing them with love.


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