CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURES Review of Literatures2.1 History2.1.1Infsoft Smart Connected LocationsIn 2015, InfsoftSmart Connected Locations Company has made a solution for indoor positioning byusing Bluetooth and Wi-Fi 5. By the time they detect that Bluetooth is muchbetter than the Wi-Fi for many reasons such as accuracy, battery life time, andcost.They start to useUWB it has many advantages like high accuracy, low latency of time, and almostno interferences, but it have some disadvantages such as cost intensive andshorter life time battery than BLE beacons. They also try to use RFID and itshowed some Advantage like very high accuracy, no interferences and no batteryneeded.
The main disadvantage of RFID is that have very short range (less than1m) so it’s a bad choice. Other disadvantage that the installation requiressignificant planner and infrastructure can be expensive and need many number ofRFID to cover a small room which have high cost .Table2.
1 Types of Beacons and its properties 126.96.36.199 Advantages· Cost-effective,unremarkable hardware· Lowenergy consumption· Flexibleintegration into the existing infrastructure (battery-powered or power supplyvia lamps and the domestic electrical system)· Workswhere other positioning techniques do not have a signal· Compatiblewith iOS and Android· Highaccuracy compared to Wi-Fi (up to 1m)188.8.131.52 Disadvantages· Additional hardware· App is required forclient based solutions· Relatively smallrange 2.2 Available Technologies The technologies used todayfor indoor positioning differ in terms of accuracy, costs and effort, but haveimproved quickly in the last couple of years.
2.2.1 Bluetooth Low EnergyBluetoothLow strength (BLE) alerts frombattery pushed beacons are at the center of theindoor region generation. It’s one ofthe latest technology that has emerged and end up an industry popular tobe had on most gadgets today. It makes useof so known as BLE beacons which are inexpensive, small,have an extended battery lifestyles and do nownot require an external electricity supply 36.The tool detects the sign from the beacon andmay calculate more or less the space to the beaconand therefore estimate the area.2.2.
2 Wi-FiWi-Fi can be used in a similar way as BLE beacons, butrequires an external power source, more setup costs and pricy equipment 7.andfrom Wi-Fi Advantage the signal is stronger and it can cover more distance thanBLE. 2.2.3 Magnetic Field DetectionMagneticfield detection using the compass sensor on a device can alsobe used for indoor positioning. A so called “fingerprinting” technology is usedto map the magnetic fields on the venue and then the device can use that map tofind its location indoors. This technology can only be applied in certaincircumstances where the magnetic fields indoor are stable. 2.
2.4 Near Field CommunicationThe NFC (Near FieldCommunication) technology consists ofsmall chips that do not require a power source Which is one of these advantage andthe device will detect the chip and read its serial number if the device iswithin 30 cm away from the chip which is too low range and consider from thisdisadvantage. This technology is being applied now in Point Of Sale(POS)systems but can as well be used for precise indoor positioning within 30 cm. The NFC technology is only available on newer phones so it will take sometime for it to take a foothold 8. It will replace the conventional QR codesas it is more convenient because QR codes need to be visible and require a goodlight and camera.2.
2.5 Gyroscope and Accelerator meterA gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintainingorientation, based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum. Mostsmart phones have a built in gyroscope and compass 8. The device can usethis information in addition to the other technologies mentioned for even moreprecise positioning. After studding andcomparing the technologies. We decided to enter indoor positioning market withBLE technology because it is reliable, accurate enough, easy to maintain andrequires little installation work.2.
3 Current Alternative System Indoor positioning technology is becoming commercially available invarious forms and quality this year. It’s a jungle out there and no one provenmethod has been sufficient for all purposes unlike the outdoor positioning withthe use of GPS satellite technology.Positioningsystems have played a major role in people’s lives since the GPS satellitetechnology became publicly available in the late 90’s. Todayalmost everyone has a device with positioning capabilities like smartphones, tablet, GPS tracking device or a watch with built-inGPS.The GPS revolutionized outdoor positioning.
Now 15 years later, thepositioning technology goes indoor and new possibilities emerge for indoor use.Satellite-based positioning doesn’t work indoor, but other technologicalstandards have emerged that make indoor positioning possible. Positioningindoor is more complicated than outdoor positioning using GPS becausea certain infrastructure needs to be in place indoor. GPS signals don’twork indoors or in narrow streets as they tend to attenuate and scatter byroofs and walls. 2.
3.1 Locatify At Locatify They decided to enter indoor positioning marketwith BLE technology because it is reliable, accurate enough, easy to maintainand requires little installation work. They are also committed to furtherdevelop the system integrating other technologies for indoor positioning.
184.108.40.206 Methodology (Positioning the User) BLE beacons are the cornerstones of indoor positioning.
With this technology, The Range can be detected by BLE Beacons .Lastcouple of years positioning are based on BLE devices. First prototypes wereonly able to detect which Beacon is closest to the user, but today They areable to use distance data from many beacons and position the user in 2D spaceon indoor map 8.This technology will develop further offering even moreprecise positioning.
This will be achieved by utilizing as well the use ofmagnetic field detection, gyroscope, accelerator meter and Near FieldCommunication (NFC) chips. 220.127.116.11 AdvantagesThey decide to use BLE positioning systems to providebetter experience to their visitors or customers. Benefits can get for manyorganizations by using location based system. For example: Museums can deliver location-based map of a venue to visitors, which provide navigation and interactive learning. In retail, indoor positioning systems can be used for location-based advertising, navigation and delivery of other location-based content to customers.
Hospitals and even airports could benefit by location-based data including turn by turn navigation.The CMS web interface is used byorganisations to manage their content, beacons and venue maps. A CMS isfrequently a hosted software service and keeps track of every piece ofcontent in the app which visitors or customers use. A fully functional CMS isnecessary for organizations because it gives them a complete control over thecontent that the users will see the CMS can also provide analytical reports.
For example how the visitor traverses through the venue and how much time theyspend at the specific locations.Fig 2.2 CMS – BLE Indoor Positioning System 2.
3.1.3 Disadvantage (Accuracy)Although BLE beacons are not expensive, easy to operate andsetup, the distance calculation is inaccurate enough for all situations and thesetup depends on some environmental factors such as signal reflection and blockingthe signalBy measuring the strength of the signal RSSI from thebeacon the Smartphone estimates the distance to the beacon. Using signalstrength for estimating distance is the not an advantage of the technology forgetting distance measurements. The signal strength drops quickly for the first2 meters away, making it relatively accurate at those distances, but thefurther away you go from the beacon, the less accurate the distance measurementgets. Environmental factors such as reflections and physical blocking alsoaffect the strength of the signal, and hence the distance calculation.