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Chapter 1 TheProblem Introduction           Traditionalculture in the Philippines puts a very high value on the family with the beliefthat the family is the basic unit of society.

Many researchers have exploredthemany facets about the family, such as established practices, patterns, trendsand issues on family life to discover and improve ways of securing the welfare of the family.          Everyculture follows a unique set of tradition and practices in taking care of theiroffspring. The parenting practices are established and are valued by thecommunity through transmitting these from one generation to the next,(Bornstein & Lansford, 2010). Parenting practices are among the factors indetermining the temperament, characteristic and aspiration of the children.               Onesignificant aspect of parenting practices is the maternal and child care practices thatinvolved delicate consideration all the time.

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These include the time when amother gets pregnant, delivers the baby and the period after child delivery.These practices are founded on a set of cultural values of the community.These practices are protected and preserved by the elders, and are shared andtransmitted to the youngergeneration.          Inindigenous communities like the Matigsalug tribe in the San Fernando, Bukidnon,maternal and childcare practices are present.

 The Matigsalug women or mothers attend to their pregnancy andpost-pregnancy needs based on their indigenous knowledge and on other sourcesof knowledge that they acquired from the community. Also the local governmentunit of San Fernando has provided health services for the people as part oftheir municipality’s responsibility.             Itis therefore the purpose of thisstudy to determine thematernal and child care practices of Matigsalug women and how these practicesare related to their traditional knowledge. In line with this purpose, the researchersdetermined how their maternaland child care practices are preserved despite of the presence of healthservices offered by the local government unit which are characterized by newways and new methods.

Framework of theStudyThe  study was anchored  on the   organizational culture  of  Coakley and Scoble  (2003)which posited  that in order to improvechildbirth practice, people need to understand the way in which birth isexperienced by women and also the “internally consistent and mutually dependentpractices and beliefs that exist around it” . Understanding organizationalculture is important because culture gives meaning, clarity, and direction tothe action of an organization and its members (Jordan & Davis-Floyd, 1993).Organizational culture represents a collective set of expectations, definitions,and memories that characterize how things happen in an organization. Cameron (1999) defined organizationalculture as a pattern of basic assumptions that a group of people has invented,discovered, or developed in learning to cope with problems, such as externaladaptation and internal integration.

 According to Deal and Kennedy(1982),astrong culture is a system of informal rules that dictate how people are tobehave most of the time, and as such they enable people to feel better aboutwhat they do, encouraging them to work harder. Moreover, it seems that theculture influences how people’s perceptions, thoughts, and feelings are relatedto the length of time they live in this culture and to its age. Understandingthe nature of organizational culture is possible by simply observing thegroup/organization functioning.

This study is supported by Larker’s Maternal and Child Health CareTheory (1969) that the  transmission of   indigenous maternal and  child health  care  enabled people  to construct and  develop effective strategies   on healing and  care  techniques to cope  with physical  emotional and social illnesses. It  argued that  health  and disease  are  universals of  human concern which are  lived out according  to the  tenets of  culture-bound  ideational and behavioral process. In the study of Ramos (2008), the Manobo-Matigsalugpregnant women observe several taboos in orders to protect the infants’ livesand health. They consult the Babaylan, their traditional birth attendant.

In theirculture, the children’s health in the womb depends on how the mothers take careof themselves; hence, they must be free from worries and stressful activities.To be assured of the babies’ good health, the choice of food is a veryimportant factor to be observed. When the mother finally gives birth, the wholecommunity knows. The relatives and neighbors come to see and welcome the newlyborn baby who is considered as the center of care and affection. TheManobo-Matigsalug mothers need adequate knowledge in hygiene and nutrition toimprove their maternal and child health care.

The local government shouldsupport the tribe in developing the uses of herbal plants in their area. Thetribe needs information to be guided in the improvement of their life.          This study is alsoanchored on the provisions of Indigenous Peoples Rights Acts (IPRA) Law of 1997 the focus of which is on the development of allindigenous communities, like the Matigsalug community. It is inherent inthe IPRA Law to respect thetraditional beliefs and practices of IP communities. The traditional maternalhealthcare practice is one of the most sensitive parts of indigenous knowledgebecause of its significance in establishing a family.           This study, aside from exploringthe maternal healthcare practices of the Matigsalug community, also determinedthe beliefs related to it. This included the view of the Matigsalug motherreflected by these beliefs.

 Statement of theProblem       This study determined the maternal and childcare practices among Matigsalug parents ofKalagangan, San Fernando, Bukidnon for the fiscal year 2017. Specifically, itsought to answer the followingstatements:1. What are the maternal and childcare practices of Matigsalug women  during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartumperiod? 2. Whatare the maternal and childcare beliefs of Matigsalug         women during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period? Significance of theStudy                    This study aimed toprovide provided significant value and contribution to the following:          Matigsalug Mothers. This study recognized the importantcontribution of the Matigsalug mothers in establishing their families. Thepresence and observance of the maternal healthcare practices assure them ofhigh regard and respect from the people in their community.

          Matigsalug Children.  Thechildren’s benefits from this study are the assured application of traditionalhealthcare practices which guarantee the children’s good health.           Matigsalug Community. With the result of this study, the Matigsalugcommunity acquired a system in preserving and enhancing their maternalhealthcare practices. In having this system, their community is assured of acapacity to develop their community.

Healthcare provider. This study willhelp the healthcare practitioners in their intervention in providing care toMatigsalug mothers.Local GovernmentUnit (LGU) and N0n-Government Organization (NGO). This studyprovided indicators to strengthen their development plan for the Matigsalugcommunity especially in health services. The data and findings provided by thisstudy and justification to their projects. Future researchers.

The finding ofthis study will draw enough interest on deeper understanding on the maternaland childcare practices.     Delimitation of theStudyThis study was delimited to the Matigsalug women inKalagangan, San Fernando, Bukidnon during the fiscal year 2017. The researchersused Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to gather the needed data for this study. Itwas also delimited to determine the childcare and maternal practices ofMatigsalug women during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum and the beliefsthey have in relation to this.           Thestudy used qualitative type of research with 6 Matigsalug women who were chosenpurposively as participants of this study. A modified questionnaire from MaureenAva Morales (2014) was utilized in this study. Definition of Terms          The following terms were definedtheoretically and operationally for better understanding.              MaternalHealth Care.

Maternal health care starts from thetime of conceptions of the child. Hence, the pre and postnatal care of theexpectant mother is includes in the health care system. The postnatal carecovers maternal health care services after the delivery (Rogan & Solveña2004). In this study Maternal health care, is the stateor practice of the Matigsalug women in Kalagangan, San Fernando Bukidnon wherehigh-quality mother-infant interaction is increasingly focused on thesystematically observation of day-to-day relations between mother and infant.Childcare. Childcareis an action or skills of looking after child/children by a day-care center,babysitter, or other provider.

Child care, child minding, daycare or preschoolis the caring for and supervision of a child or children, usually from age sixweeks to age thirteen (WHO 2010). In this study child care is one of the relatedfactors that a Matigsalug mother in Kalagangan,San Fernando Bukidnon must give attention to her child/children, givesupervision and provide their basic needs.        

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