Chapter 3: Research Methodology3.1 Introduction3.2 SubjectIn this research study, it will targeted on both female and male and it can be internal and external public relations practitioners who must allegedly have 3 or more years of working experiences in public relations field or industry. More than 3 years’ working experiences practitioners was chosen is because those public relations practitioners naturally have the instinct and have sufficient judgments, thus they will eventually have practiced the glass ceiling of the company.
There is no limit to any Malaysian races whether respondent in Malay, Chinese and Indian or so forth. The study also emphasized that the participants of the public relations must be pure voluntary. The minimum suggested amounts of the subject are 8 and targeted in different management position of public relations field. Male PR practitionersFemale PR practitioners3 to 5 years working experiences3 to 5 years working experiences6 to 10 years working experiences6 to 10 years working experiences11 to 14 years working experiences11 to 14 years working experiencesMore than 15 years working experiences More than 15 years working experiences 3.3. Design3.
3.1 Research methodQualitative research method was chosen as the research method to this study. This is nature way of the research method and that can explanatory. By using qualitative research methods to this study, the researcher is able to use interpretive practices when researching the topic. It also allows the use of multiple sources such as in depth interviews, published data, online interview, documents, observations and so on (Wimmer and Dominick 2013). In-depth interviews and online interviews that allows researchers to explore more in this topic in depth.
Interviews are more likely to have internal validity or measure what the study seeks to measure because meanings can be discussed in-depth in order to reach a mutual understanding between the researcher and participant (Babbie, 2007). 3.3.2 Variable3.
3.2.1 Independent VariableAn independent variable is defined as the variable that can control or change the result of the dependent variable in a research. It is a variable that allowed research making comparison or testing on how the result and outcome will be change and effect on the dependent variable in an experiment or research (Hansen & Machin 2013, p.288). According to Wimmer and Dominick 2013, independent variable is analytically varied by researchers while dependent variable refers to an observed and values that depend on changes effects of independent variables. A changes in independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable. In this research topic, the independent variable which is the comparison between male and female practitioners and the result of “glass ceiling in PR Industry” will be affected.
220.127.116.11 Dependent VariableDependent variable is the variable that pertain passive variable. It is because it will change if there is any changed on independent variable (Hansen & Machin 2013, p.286). In this research topic, “glass ceiling in PR Industry” could be a dependent variable because it could change depending on several factors such as “Why male practitioners have more opportunity than female practitioners”, “What are the different roles and function between male and female PR practitioners in organizations?” and “Are income levels and career prospects in PR different due to gender differences?”. These results will be affected by the comparison between male and female PR practitioners.
3.3.3 Non Probability Sampling – purposive sampleAccording to Wimmer & Dominick (2013) stated that probability sampling uses mathematical guidelines whereby each unit’s chance for selection is known while nonprobability sampling does not follow the guidelines of mathematical probability. In this study applied non-probability sampling.
Nonprobability sampling selects target audience based on their convenience and relevancy, or in other word they seems to match the research requirement. (Wimmer and Dominick 2013).In this research, purposive sample will be apply in this research because respondents of this research have to be qualified and fulfill certain criteria set by researchers. (Wimmer and Dominick 2013). According to Wimmer and Dominick (2013) claimed that purposive sample is a sample deliberately chosen to be representative of a population. For this topic, interview only given to the Public relations practitioners in both female and male because of the relevancy of the topic. 3.
3.4 Method of analysis 3.3.4.
1 Code Scheme / Code Produce Coding is refer to the process of organizing and transform the data collected from your pure respondents. It is allow researchers to summarize what you have collected and what happening in your data. Based on Denzin & Lincoln emphasized that coding is a labels segments of data collected from all the valid volunteer with terms to categorize, summarize and arrange for these segments. Coding means that taking data apart and defining how to be constituted and form it to the same categorised and same group. Either qualitative or quantitative research, there is still no any right way and proper way to do code for but it coding must be tailored to the research process.3.4 Material / Instrument3.
4.1 Reliability & Validity18.104.22.168 ReliabilityThe first principal concerns regarding the accuracy of this research data is reliability.
Reliability refers to obtaining the same result in the measurement process when there has been no change in what is being measured. The meaning of the terms reliability for a researcher is used to measure the data or result consistent and stable. It is usually use to measure the quantitative survey, it is because quantitative survey is countable and less bias (Huebner, 2016). 3.4.
1.2 ValidityValidity refers to measuring what we intend to measure, and not something else. Validity in qualitative research means “appropriateness” of the tools, processes, and data. Whether the research question is valid for the desired outcome, the choice of methodology is appropriate for answering the research question, the design is valid for the methodology, the sampling and data analysis is appropriate, and finally the results and conclusions are valid for the sample and context (Huebner, 2016).Validity in research means that effectiveness of the result. It can be applied in the research methodology and design. There are two type of validity which are internal validity and external validity.
For example, Internal validity which mean will affected by the resource in the study, and the external will accepted by the sampling or target audience on the study (Wimmer and Dominick 2013).Furthermore, validity is help researcher to know that if their result or data they get is validity mean that their study is good for future use.3.5 ProcedureInterview will be conducted through face to face and online interview. Gathering data should be completed in a short period of time because of the time restraints.
Data collected from the targeted sample must be useful and relevant, it’s to ensure that invalid answer did not meet requirement of research. Initially researchers had approached to as much as possible targeted sample, it is because there must filtration and void answer that does not meet the criteria. It is ensure that the amount of the participants to be interview is in control. With limited resources, the minimum amount of participants has set to 8 people. Due to limited period of time, the duration of the in depth and online interview to be conducted during semester break from 9th February 2018 to 4th Mac 2018. There have 4 female and 4 male PR practitioners will be participated in the interviews. All interviewees are PR practitioners with at least three years of working experience in their respective companies and PR Industry. This research report will mainly focus in Kuala Lumpur area as it is national capital and most populous global city in Malaysia.
There are some limitations in the research subjects. Firstly, as we know that, Public relations practitioners are too busy with work and no extra time, because PRP have to conduct the event and deal with the media so they did not have too much time to reply. Secondly, PRP are not friendly and unwilling to help, sometimes PRP will totally ignore the message.