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Chapter
02

 

Hardware
Components

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Circuit Components

 

Ø  Bridge
Rectifier

Ø  Capacitor

Ø  220-6V
Step Down Transformer

Ø  Zener
Diode

Ø  Ardiuno
UNO

Ø  Resistors

Ø  20*4
LCD Display

Ø  Regulator

Ø  Relay

Ø  Voltage
Sensor

Ø  Current
Sensor

Ø  Diode

Ø  Potentiometer

Ø  BJT
547

Ø  GSM
Sim 808

Ø  Opto
Coupler

Ø  AC
to DC converter

Arduino:

Arduino
is an open-source device that made microcontroller based packs for building
digitalized gadgets and interactive objects that can be detect and control practical
devices. The output depends on microcontroller board plans. These systems give
sets of computerized and analog input/output pins that can interface to
different extension sheets and different circuits. The sheets highlight serial
correspondence interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on a few models,
for leading programs from PC’s . For programming the microcontrollers, the
Ardunio extend gives an integrated development environment (IDE) in light of
programming dialect named precessing, which likewise underpins the dialects C
and C++.

An
Arduino board camprises of an Atmel 8, 16 or 32 bit AVR microcontroller with
corresponding parts that encourage programming and joining difference cities.
An important part of Arduino is its standard connectors, which let clients
associate the CPU board to an assortment of tradable of extra modules named
shields. The reason of using Arduino is to control the circuit. In our project,
Arduino plays a very important role. The reason behind this is, in our project
voltage measurement, perfect tripping time, give notification to the user on
time it is very necessary. To control these things in parallel way, Arduino is
important. In this project, we are willing to use Arduino UNO to fulfill our
necessity. The Arduino UNO is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega 328.
It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6
analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an
ICSP header and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the
microcontroller. We can easily connect it to computer with a USB cable or power
it with AC to DC adapter or battery to get started.

We
could have used microcontroller. This would fulfill our all demand. But there
are some drawbacks using microcontroller. The main superiority of using Arduino
is it has a vast amount of library which microcontroller don’t have. Besides as
we are thinking of making something that does not cost much. Arduino UNO is
cheaper than microcontroller so if we think economically Arduino UNO is good
for us. Microcontroller will make the device that we are trying to build quite
big on the other hand Arduino UNO is small. For these reason we choose to work
with Arduino UNO.

 

Bridge
Rectifier:

We
used this rectifier as the supply is of AC so we need to convert the AC to DC.
We can use full wave also but it has more losses than this rectifier as we
don’t use center tap in this rectifier as it firms continuous flow of direct
current. We will use four diodes in this rectifier and one capacitor parallel
to this acts as filtering of the AC curents from DC currents. It requires four
diodes instead of two, but avoids the need for a center tapped transformer.
During the positive half cycle of the secondary voltage, diodes D1 and D3 are
conducting and D2 and D4 are not conducting. Therefore, current flows through
the secondary winding, diode D1 and D3, resistor RL. During the negative half
cycle of the secondary winding, diode D1 and D3, resistor RL. The diodes D2
& D4 conduct and diodes D1 & D3 do not during the negative half cycle
of the secondary voltage. Eventually current through pass the secondary winding
, diode D2, D4 and Resistor RL. In both occasion current went through same
direction of the load resistor.

A
conventional bridge rectifier, is a combination of rectifiers (12 in a three
phase system) wired so that each part of an AC current is passed to respective
positive and negative lines of a DC output. It provides full wave rectification
of AC to DC.

In
a sense of making it low cost, highly reliable and small sized silicon bridge
rectifiers is now more convenient in the contrary of a center-tap and half wave
rectifier. It has a significant number of advantages over a center-tap and a
common half wave rectifier. Some advantages are given here. The precise
rectification efficiency of full-wave rectifier is two times of that of a half
wave rectifier. With the higher frequency and lower ripple voltage in this case
full wave rectifier is easy to filtering circuit. We have higher output
voltage, higher output power and higher Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) IN
case of a full-wave rectifier. Another perk in a full wave rectifier is, there
is no saturation problem due to DC current because of the core where DC current
in the two halves of the transformer secondary flow in opposite directions.
There is no necessary to use a complex center tap in the transformer secondary
winding so in case of a bridge rectifier the transformer required is much
simple. We can even omit transformer if step up or step down voltage is not
required. The PIV is the other half part of the center-tap rectifier. Hence
bridge rectifier is highly computable for higher voltage applications. TUF in
case of a bridge rectifier, is higher than that of a canter-tap rectifier. For
a given power output, power transformer of smaller size can be used in case of
the bridge rectifier because in both (primary and secondary) windings of the
supply transformer flow for the entire AC cycle. It will 0.4$ globally.

 

 

Capacitor:

We
all know that capacitors store and release electrical charge. They are used for
filtering power supply lines, alternate resonant circuits, and for blocking DC
voltages while passing AC signals, among many other uses 470 micro farads: 15
0.1 micro capacitor.

AC
capacitors will cost 0.5$ per piece.

 

Zener
Diode:

The
use of diodes in this project near the low voltage and high voltage near low
voltage we use 6.0V and near high voltage 6.8V. As this diodes are used as
break down voltage contractions: The Zener diode’s operation depends on the
heavy doping of its p-n junction. The depletion region formed in the diode is
very thin (<1 um) and the electric field is consequently very high (about 500kV/m) even for a small reverse bias voltage of about 5 V, allowing electrons to funnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. In the atomic scale, this tunneling corresponds to the transport of valence band electrons into the empty conduction states; as a result of the reduced barrier between these bands and high electric fields that are induced due to the relatively high levels of doping on the both sides. The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the doping process. While tolerance within 0.05% are available, the most widely used tolerances are 5% and 10%. Breakdown voltages for commonly available Zener diodes can be vary from 1.2 V to 200 V. 5-6.8 V Zener diode costs 0.1$ per piece.     Tranformers: Transformers are also used extensively in electronic devices to step-down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. The transformer also electrically isolates the user from contact with the supply voltage. We used three 220V to 6V step down transformer.   Relay: When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that activates the armature consequent movement of the movable contacts either makes or breaks a connection with fixed contact. If the set of contact was closed when the relay was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise; in a high voltage or current application it reduces arcing. When the coil is energized with direct current, a diode is often placed across the coil to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field  at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to semiconductor circuit. Some automotive relays include a diode inside the relay case. Alternatively, a contact protection network consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series (snubber circuit) may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to be energized with alternative current (AC) a small copper shading ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid, creating a small out-of-phase current which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle. A solid-state relay uses a thyristor or other switching device, activated by the control signal, to switch the controlled load, instead of a solenoid. An opt coupler can be used to isolate control and controlled circuits.   GSM Sim808: SIM808 module is a total Quad-Band GSM/GPRS module which joins GPS innovation for satellite route. The conservative outline which incorporated GPRS and GPS in a SMT bundle will essentially spare both time and cost for the clients to create GPS empowered applications. Including an industry-standard interface and GPS work, it enables variable advantages for be followed at any area and at whatever time with flag scope. ·         Vcc to 5V ·         Ground to Ground ·         RXD to digital pin 10 ·         TXD to digital pin 9 This system has a supply voltage range of 3.4-5 V           BJT: A bipolar intersection transistor is a kind of transistor that utilizations both electron and opening charge transporters. Conversely, unipolar transistors, for example, field-impact transistors, just utilize one sort of charge bearer. For their operation, BJT's utilize two intersections between two semiconductors sorts, n-sort and p-sort. BJT's are made in two sorts, NPN a PNP and are accessible as individual segments, or created in coordinated circuits, regularly in extensive numbers. The essential capacity of  a BJT is to open up current. This enables BJT's to be utilized as intensifiers or switches, giving them wide relevance in electronic gear, including PC's, TV's, cell phones, sound enhancers, mechanical control and radio transmitters. We have used BJT547 in this project.   Potentiometer: A potentiometer is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or turning contact that structures a flexible voltage divider. If just two terminals are utilized, one end to and the wiper, it goes about as a variable resistor or rheostat. The measuring instrument called a potentiometer is basically a voltage divider utilized for measuring electric potential; the segment is a usage of a similar standard, thus its name. Potentiometers are usually used to control electrical gadgets, for example, volume controls on sound hardware. Potentiometers worked by a system can be utilized a position transducers, for instance, in a joystick. Potentiometers are once in a while used to straight forward control    .   Opto Coupler: In hardware, an opto-isolator, likewise called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a part that exchanges electrical flags between two confined circuits by utilizing light. Opto-isolators keep high voltages from influencing the framework getting the signal. Commercially accessible opto-isolators withstand contribution to-yield voltages up to 10 kV. A typical kind of opto-isolator comprises of a LED and a phototransistor in a similar misty bundle. Different sorts of source-sensor mixes incorporate LED-photodiode, LED-LASCR, and light photo resistor sets. Normally opto-isolators exchange computerized (on-off) signs, however a few methods enable them to be utilized with simple signs. An opto-isolator contains a source of light, quite often a close infrared light-emanating diode (LED) that believes electrical information motion into light, a shut optical channel and a photo sensor, which distinguishes approaching light and either creates electric vitality straightforwardly, or regulates electric current spilling out of an outside power supply. The sensor can be a photo resistor, a photodiode, a phototransistor, a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) or a triac. Since LEDs can detect light notwithstanding producing it, development of symmetrical, bidirectional opto-isolators is conceivable. An optocoupled strong state hand-off contains a photodiode opto-isolator which drives a power switch, more often than not a reciprocal combine of MOSFETs. An opened optical switch contains a wellspring of light and a sensor, yet its optical channel is open, permitting tweak of light by outer items discouraging the way of light or reflecting light into the sensor.         AC to DC Converter: An AC to DC converter or widely known as rectifier, is an electrical gadget that rotates current (AC), which intermittently inverts bearing, to direct present (DC), which streams in just a single direction. Rectifiers have many utilizations, yet are regularly discovered filling in as parts of DC power supplies and high-voltage coordinate current power transmission systems. Because of the exchanging way of the info AC sine wave, the procedure of amendment alone creates a DC current that, however unidirectional, comprises of beats of current. Numerous uses of rectifiers, for example, control supplies for radio, TV and PC gear, require a relentless consistent DC current. The transformer in this experiment was AC, so needed a rectifier to make it DC.   Voltage Sensor: A voltage sensor will be ready to decide and even screen and measure the voltage supply. It is then ready to take those estimations and transform them into a flag that one will at that point have the capacity to peruse. The flag will regularly go into a specific electronic gadget for recording, yet once in a while, an eyewitness will be available to physically read the sensor yield. We have fixed higher voltage to 235V and lower voltage to 200V, elsewise sensor will sense.     Current Controller: Current controlling is the practice in electrical or electronic circuits of forcing a furthest point of confinement on the present that might be conveyed to a load with the motivation behind securing the circuit producing or transmitting the current from destructive impacts because of a short out or comparative issue in the load.   Diode: A diode is a two-terminal electronic part that conducts fundamentally in one direction; it has low imperviousness to the current in one heading, and high resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most well-known sort today, is a crystalline bit of semiconductor material with a p–n intersection associated with two electrical terminals. The most regular capacity of a diode is to enable an electric current to go in one heading (called the diode's forward bearing), while at the same time blocking current the other way (the reverse biasing).   LCD Display: A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. LCD's don't radiate light straightforwardly, rather utilizing a backdrop illumination or reflector to deliver pictures in shading or monochrome. LCDs are used in a wide range of applications including computer monitors, televisions, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, and indoor and outdoor signage. Small LCD screens are common in portable consumer devices such as digital cameras, watches, calculators, and mobile telephones, including smartphones.   Bread Board: A present day solderless breadboard attachment comprises of a punctured square of plastic with various tin plated phosphor bronze or nickel silver amalgam spring cuts under the holes. The clasps are regularly called tie focuses or contact focuses. The quantity of tie focuses is regularly given in the determination of the breadboard. The edge of the board has male and female scores so sheets can be cut together to shape an extensive breadboard.                                          

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