CHAPTERONEINTRODUCTION “Social Studies contributes to national development by equipping learners with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed to become effective and informed citizens” (Ofosu-Kusi, 2009 p.8). 1.
1 Background to the StudyA close and careful study of the historyand objectives of Social Studies around the world clearly indicates that itsintroduction into the school system is to play a vital role in nationaldevelopment. In tracing the developmentof Social Studies education as a tool of developing a nation, Kissock (1981)cited in Nwaledo (2012) indicates that in Germany, Social Studies wasintroduced just after the Second World War into the school system as a tool ofdeveloping a new political order and also as a knowledge base for effectivecitizenship. In Britain, it was used to legitimize the teaching of SocialSciences especially Sociology while preparing students for their role in thesociety. In Japan, it was used to build a foundation for a democratic society,while in the United States of America and Canada; it continued its primaryfunction of preparing students for effective citizenship in democratic societyas well as national development. In Africa the idea for Social Studieseducation came out at a conference in Mombasa, Kenya in August 1968 where itwas agreed that no programmes of curriculum could be better than, those whichare closely linked with the national development and aspiration of thecountries, its people and the responsibilities of citizenship in the country,hence the need for Social Studies education (Merryfield, 1988). InGhana, the Social Studies curriculum has been designed to assist learners inschool to understanding the moral and cultural values that guides the interactionsof man with his physical and social environment that can contribute to nationaldevelopment through citizenship education. Social Studies education emphasizesthe holistic integration of nation building with content around relevant issuesand topics that included environmental concerns, population, and attention tovalues, beliefs and skills of solving personal and societal problems (Kankam,2016). Even though Social Studies is beentaught in all junior and senior high schools in Ghana as a compulsory subjectfor the purpose of citizenship education yet there have been a number ofindiscipline acts and negative attitudes exhibited on the part of learners andex-students of Social Studies.
People show unwillingness to contribute theirquota effectively to national development, uncultured behaviors which do not conform to the values and norms ofGhanaian society are also been exhibited, hence the need to explore the experiencesformer students have in Social Studies especially their views and the impactthe subject have had on their daily activities, teachers assessment about theeffectiveness of Social Studies and the challenges teachers have been facing intheir delivering of the Social Studies curriculum in Ghana. 1.2 Statement of theProblemThe inclusion of Social Studies educationin the school system in Ghana as a tool to prepare the youth to acquire thenecessary values and attitudes that can make them good citizens who can makepositive contributions towards nation building looks quite unclear whether thesubject is achieving its core purpose of promoting nation building throughcitizenship education. Attitudes that seem to be purely negative are beingexhibited by most of the citizenry. The implication of this is the increasingcases of violence, corruption, crime, robbery, nepotism, pilfering, latenessand absenteeism at work places and other negative attitudes among thecitizenry.
This makes one wonders about the effectiveness or the reason for itsintroduction and if Social Studies is really accomplishing its main purpose. Inrelation to the attitudes, The President of Republic of Ghana, Nana AkuffoAddo, advised Ghanaians to put an end to negative attitudes that militateagainst national development. He said, “Change that all Ghanaians wanted to seecould only become attainable with a positive change in attitude to work”(Kwawukume, 2017), when he was speaking at the 2017 edition of the May Day atthe Black Star Square in Accra. It is upon these reasons why theresearcher is prompted to investigate into the role of Social Studies educationin promoting national development through citizenship education and if Social Studiesteaching and learning have had any positive impact in the lives of Ghanaiansand whether there are any challenges concerning the teaching of Social Studiesthat need to be looked at or addressed. 1.3Purpose of the Study This study will sought to examine therole of Social Studies education in nation building through citizenshipeducation and the challenges teachers have been encountering in the teaching ofSocial Studies curriculum. Specifically the objectives of the study are to;1.
Examinethe effectiveness of Social Studies education in nation building throughcitizenship education in Ghana2. Ascertainhow ex-students of Social Studies approach the importance of the conceptslearnt in Social Studies in their daily activities3. Explorewhether the contents of Social Studies curriculum are adequate to meet thepurpose of the subject4.
Investigatethe challenges teachers teaching Social Studies are facing in delivering of theSocial Studies lessons in the Ghanaian schools 1.4 Research Questions The following sample researchquestions would be posed to guide the study:1. Howeffective is Social Studies education in nation building through citizenshipeducation in Ghana?2.
Whatis the extent of which ex-students of Social Studies approach the importance ofthe concepts learnt in Social Studies in their daily activities?3. Towhat extent are the contents of Social Studies curriculum adequate to meet thepurpose of the subject?4. Whatare the challenges teachers teaching Social Studies are facing in deliveringthe Social Studies lessons in the Ghanaian schools? 1.5 Significance of the Study The research findings would benefit Ghana Education Service (GES)and make decision makers responsible for the development and improvement ofSocial Studies education. The study would also benefit Ghana Education Serviceand policy makers to develop the Social Studies curriculum to meet the neededdemands of the Ghanaians. It is expected that the research would helpPrincipals, Social Studies teachers, students and other Teacher-learninginstitutions such as the Universities and Colleges of Education to attach more importanceto Social Studies education. There would also be awareness creation tosensitize Ghana Education Service (GES), Principals and all stakeholders about challengesteachers teaching Social Studies are facing.
Also the study would equally serveas valuable material as a source of motivation and inspiration to others whomay be interested in researching into similar area. 1.6 Delimitation The target area for the study would be Kumasi MetropolitanAssembly in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. This is because the researcher is veryconversant with the Metropolis. According to the Statistical Service Division,Ghana, on population and housing census 2010, Kumasi is about 24,389 squarekilometers with the population estimated to be 2.0 million which represents32.
4% of the Ashanti Region’s total population. CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1IntroductionIn this chapter, an attempt will be madeto review existing knowledge which involves locating, reading and summarizingof materials written by other authors that have some bearing on research topic.The researcher has therefore chosen to be reviewing relevant literature on thefollowing headings:2.
2Historical Overview of the Social Studies EducationObebe (1990) cited in Ogundare (2000),points out that the United States of America appeared to be the “mother” ofSocial Studies and that Social Studies first appeared as a curriculum of theeducational system of United States of America within the first two decades ofthe 20th century. In Ghana, the study of Social Studies wasintroduced into the school curriculum of three selected Training Colleges nowColleges of Education as far back as the early 1940’s on experimental basis(Tamakloe, 1988; Kankam, 2016). 2.3Nature and Purposes (Objectives and Goals) of Social Studies EducationIn order to have effective understandingof the role of Social Studies education in national development, it must callfor complete appreciation and understanding of the nature, definition, scope,purpose and objectives of Social Studies education. The nature of a subject isderived from the definition of the subject and that the nature of SocialStudies must be derived from the most accepted definition of citizenshipeducation (Quartey, 2000).
2.4Social Studies and Education for Citizenship in National DevelopmentThe basic purpose of Social Studieseducation is to prepare learners through effective instruction for them to makepositive contribution towards national development. Social Studies as a subjectaims at introducing learners in school to the political, economic and socialwhich they will enter after the school (Aggarwal, 2006).2.5Challenges Teachers Face in the Delivering of Social Studies CurriculumA study conducted by Nworgu (2007)established that most teachers teaching Social Studies are not adequatelyinformed about the demands, implications, objectives and other challengesassociated with Social Studies teaching. 2.6 Teacher’s Academicand Professional Qualifications in Social StudiesTeacher qualification is usually made upof relevant educational degrees as well as certificates.
Social Studies morethan any other subject demands “well prepared conscientious men and women ofsound knowledge and training whose personalities rank higher among men”(Aggarwal, 1982).2.7Teacher’s Knowledge of the Subject-Matter in Social StudiesQuartey (1984) estimates that knowledgefor the teaching of Social Studies is made up of different domains of contentknowledge and pedagogical content knowledge and studies have shown that theknowledge for teaching Social Studies is a predictor of student’s achievementin Social Studies.
2.8Techniques and Methods of Teaching Social StudiesAs indicated by Amadi, Mezieobi (1994) cited in Adedayo (2012), teaching techniques are embedded inmethods and are thus narrower in scope than methods and if the technique isappropriately utilized by the professional Social Studies teacher, it will givemeaning to the teaching.2.9Teaching-Learning Materials and Resources in Social StudiesThe planning of instructional programmefor the Social Studies calls for the inclusion of many and different resources.Teaching-learning resource is any form of material which teacher prepares oruses to make learning easier than it would have been without it (Tamakloe,Amedahe & Atta, 2005).2.10Evaluation in Social Studies EducationIn order to assess the effectiveness ofSocial Studies education in national development, examination and evaluation inSocial Studies must play a vital role.
This is done so that actual facts ofSocial Studies may be ascertained and remedial action can be taken wherenecessary (Aggarwal, 2006). 2.11Class Size in Social StudiesClass size is an educational tool thatcan be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school. Researchconducted by Adeyemi (2008) on class size in Nigeria indicated that class sizeis a critical factor determining the quality of output from secondary schoolsin Ekiti State, Nigeria.
CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY3.1 IntroductionThischapter presents the methods that will be employed by the researcher to guidethe study in the data collection. The researcher discusses the research design thatwill be employed for the study, the study area, the target populations,sampling procedures, the sample sizes, instruments used for the collection ofdata, pre-test of the instruments, data analysis and ethical issues governingthe study.3.
2 Research DesignAresearch design is seen as a plan and the procedures for research which spanthe decisions from the broad assumptions to detailed methods of datacollection, analysis and interpretation (Creswell, 2014). According to Kerlinger (1986) cited in Kumar(2011) a research design is seen as “a plan, structure and strategy with theaim of obtaining answers to research questions or problems and is a completescheme of a research work” (p.74).
He adds that, selection of an appropriateresearch plan is very important to the researcher because it aids in answeringresearch questions objectively, accurately and above all, it is very economicalfor the researcher (p. 75). Selecting an appropriate research design should bebased on philosophical assumptions, strategies of inquiry and specific researchmethods as well as the research problem, the researcher’s personal experiencesand the readers for whom the research study is written (Creswell, 2014). After a perfect consideration of the variousstrategies of inquiry, exploratory sequential mixed approach which has beendescribed by Creswell (2014) as the approach in which the researcher firstbegins by exploring with a qualitative data and analysis and then uses thefindings of the qualitative in a second quantitative phase.
This strategy willhelp the researcher in making an in-depth study of a phenomenon especially whenthis study involves a way of understanding the kind of live experience ofpeople who have studied social studies and the quantitative approach cannot beused to access people’s emotional behaviour, the way they feel and think butrather qualitative strategy of inquiry is seen as more appropriate. This designwill be employed in to order to provide simple summaries about the sample andto depict the participants in an accurate way. Based on these advantages, the researcher therefore finds itexpedient to choose this design in order to form a general opinion about thepopulation in this survey, either the whole population or the sample (Karasar,2005). This will lead to the drawing of conclusions that will be useful ormeaningful to the study. 3.3 PopulationThetarget population for the study will comprise of students (ie. students fromboth senior high schools and tertiary institutions), teachers teaching SocialStudies and people who are out of school and have studied social studies up tothe senior high school level in the Kumasi Metropolis.
3.4 Sample and Sampling ProcedureThevalue or worth of any educational research findings depends largely on theextent to which the sample reflects or represents the entire target populationfor the study (Kumepkpor, 2000; Kwabia , 2006). For the purpose of the first study thejudgmental or purposive sampling technique will be employed since theresearcher is of the view that people who have gone through social studieseducation up to senior high school level can furnish or provide the needed orthe required information and will also be willing to participate and sharetheir experiences for the study. As indicates by Creswell (2012), inqualitative inquiry, the rational is not to generalize to a population, butrather to develop an in-depth exploration of a central phenomenon. In addition,the researcher will intentionally select individuals who have rich information.Typically, in qualitative study it is advisable to study a few individualsbecause the overall ability of a researcher is to provide an in-depth pictureand that the number may be several, ranging from 1(one) to two (2) to thirty(30) to forty (40), larger numbers can become unwieldy and the results insuperficial perspectives (Creswell, 2012). For these reasons, eighteen (18)participants will be selected for the first part of the study (qualitatively). Inthe second part of the study, two hundred (200) teachers out of the two hundredand seventy-two (272) teachers will be selected from the fifty-two senior highschools using simple random sampling technique; specifically the lottery methodwill be employed.
The selection of this sample size out of the total populationwill be based on Krejcie and Morgan’s (1970) table for determining sample sizefor a finite population for easy reference.3.5 Research Instruments for DataCollectionSincethe study will employ the mixed approach which involves the use of thequalitative and quantitative approach, the researcher will sought to make useof semi-structured interviews to elicit information from the respondents on theeffectiveness of social studies education in nation building throughcitizenship education and the experiences of ex-students of social studies havebeen going through. The second part of this study will focus on the teachersview or assessment of the social studies content and the challenges teachersteaching social studies are facing. A questionnaire will be used to collectdata from teachers teaching Social Studies in the senior high schools in theKumasi Metropolis.
3.6 Procedure for Data CollectionAnintroductory letter will be obtained from the Head of Department of SocialStudies Education, University of Education, Winneba. A copy of the letter willbe attached to the semi structured interview and the questionnire to seek forofficial permission from the heads of the selected senior high schools and theDeans of Students’ Affairs of the selected tertiary institutions to enable theresearcher have permission to interact with the students and the teachers. Anofficial date will be fixed the interview and the administration of thequestionnaire. The other respondents who are neither in senior high school nortertiary institutions (those working) will be contacted at their work places tofix dates and times for the interview.
A period will be fixed for the interviewand after analysis of it the questionnaire will be designed and administer toparticipants of the study.3.7 Data AnalysisDueto the exploratory nature f the study and also because the researcher will beinteracting with the respondents to be able to interpret their viewseffectively, the qualitative phase of the collected data will beanalyzed based on themes. Each of the recorded interviews from the respondentswith a special digital voice recorder will first be transcribed and coded. Tobe able to verify their opinions, the transcribed interviews will be read backto each participant.
For the purpose of confidentiality, fake names will beused to represent each participant interview. Because of the nature of the study,the transcribed interviews will be read over and over again in order to get andgroup the main ideas and similar concepts from the participants before thefinal analysis. The quantitative aspect of the study will be analysed with one-wayanalysis of variance (ANOVA).
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