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CHAPTER 1THE PROBLEM – ITS BACKGROUND        Leading is a process of influencing anddirecting the activities of an organized group to accomplish goals bycommunicating with them.  Leadershiptherefore premised on interpersonal relationship; hence a leader must belong toa group.  What this implies is theleadership thrives in an organization.

 According to Adebakin and Gbadamosi (1996) organization comprise of twoor more people who exist on continuous basis with the intention ofaccomplishing set goal(s).          The success of an organization,particularly the higher educational institution cannot only be judged on howfar it has grown in terms of revenue, but more importantly is the measure ofits performance in many aspects such as number of graduates, board performance,competent teaching and non-teaching staffs, and accreditation level. Along withthese many aspects, a competent leader with good quality leadership behaviourand styles is also a key to success.          Leadership behaviour and style is theway in which the functions of leadership are carried out, the way in whichmanagers typically behave towards members of the group.         Within an organization, leadershipinfluences will be dependent upon the type of power that the leader canexercise over the workers.  Power is thecapacity to influence.  Okafor definespower as capacity to influence anotherthrough a control over needed resources.

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        In the Philippines, thepublic judges the quality of education offered by higher education institutionby looking at the results of board examinations consistent with the number of graduates and the accreditationlevel awarded by the accrediting institutions like Philippine AccreditingAssociation of Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAASCU), Philippine Association of Colleges andUniversities Commission on Accreditation (PACUCOA). There has been a report on educational quality, through a large-scaleassessment at the national and local levels and this has also been a majorconcern of all higher education institutions in the country.  In one of the reports of Commission of HigherEducation that the deterioration of the quality of higher education is one ofits critical areas of concern.

It is in this premise that this research study is being conducted.  While it is true in some but may not be trueto all higher education institution.At present there are approximately more than 100* schools, colleges, anduniversities offering Medical Technology Education in the Philippines. Someexisted since the birth of Medical Technology Education in the country and arestill operating with exemplary performance and majority are new. Beginning fromoffering a basic training in the hospital to a more extensive, the program isnow being considered to be one of the hardest among many programs being offeredin the higher education institution.

  The program Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology/Bachelor ofScience in Laboratory Science is a four-year program consisting of generaleducation and professional courses.  Theaims of this program are as follows: For the graduates to (a) develop theknowledge, skills, professional attitudes, and values in the performance ofclinical laboratory procedures needed to help the physician in the properdiagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of diseases; (b) acquirecritical thinking skills in Medical Technology/Medical Laboratory Science; (c)engage in research and community-related activities; (d) participate inactivities related to promoting the profession and actively engage in life-longlearning undertaking; and (e) develop collaborative and leadership qualities.The continuous existence and success of this program can be linked tothe qualities and behaviour of the person who are taking the responsibilitiesas leaders in their respective institution.         Based on the guidelines for the implementation of CMO No. 46 s. 2012,the Policies, Standards and Guidelines for the Bachelor of Science in MedicalTechnology/Medical Laboratory Science (BSM/MLS) implements the “shift tolearning competency-based standards/outcomes-based education”.  It specifies the core competencies’ expected ofBS Medical Technology/Medical Laboratory Science graduates “regardless of thetype of HEI they graduate from.  However,in “recognition of the spirit of Outcomes-Based Education” (OBE), this PSGallow HEI to initiate curricular innovations “in line with the assessment of how best to achieve learning outcomes intheir particular contexts and their respective missions…” The implementation of this PSG is course through the leaders such as thedeans and heads of the program of each and every higher education institutionwhere the program is offered.

  Flores (2009), cited that transformational leadership can also beapplied to educational leadership since in the same practice, it awards the useof power and authority to control others rather than it centers on the relatedconcepts of integration as the main element of leadership.  Beach and Reihnarts described leadership asfollows: (1) a vision with high but realistic goals that create a culture thatguides the organizations and each member; (2) trust in people and prompt,frequent and concrete feedback to them as they use their interpersonal skillsto work effectively with others; (3) an ability to communicate with teachersand others; (4) integrity – charaterized by honesty and willingness to tkaepersonal responsibility for their behavior and actions; (5) an ability todiagnosse, selects appropriate processes and procedures and takes risks and;(6) an ability to unite effort with purpose. Statement of the Problem        Given the perceived importance ofleadership and the central role administrators’ play in the effectiveness ofthe school, it is not surprising that researchers in the field have dedicatedthemselves to investigating various leadership theories and the theoreticalbasis on which educational leaders base their leadership style andpractices.  Many of these theories havebeen influential in guiding school leaders (Manzano, et al., 2005); however,transformational leadership is the favoured style of leadership because itassumed to a leadership practice that produces results beyond expectations(Bass, 1985; Burns,1978).  According toLeithwood (1994), transformational forms of leadership have the potential forbuilding high levels of commitment and fostering growth in school staffs.  While it is true in some schools it may notbe true to others.

  It is for this reason why the researcher would like identify if there isa direct influence of leadership style and practices of the deans and or heads of the different units or colleges in theselected universities and colleges in National CapitalRegion.        This study aims to determine therelationship between leadership practices and institutional performance.         It is in this light that the researcherwould like to answer the following questions:1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:        1.1 Age and Gender;        1.2 Civil Status;        1.3 Highest EducationalAttainment; and        1.

4 Years in the service?2. How can the leadership practices of deans and/or program heads fromthe selected universities and colleges in the National Capital Region bedescribed based on assessment of the respondents as to:2.1 Model the way2.2 Inspire a shared vision2.

3 Challenge the process2.4 Enable others to act2.5 Encourage the heart3. What is the level of institutional performance of the selecteduniversities and colleges in Quezon City in terms of:3.

1. board exam results3.2.

accreditationlevel3.3. graduation rate4. Is there is a significant difference in the responses of the three(3) groups of participants as to the leadership practices of the deans, programheads, faculty?5. Is there a significant relationship between the leadership practices and institutionalperformance of the selected universities and colleges in National CapitalRegion?6. Whatleadership-based model can be proposed to help improve institutionalperformance?School effectiveness is always linked withleadership.  In the absence ofleadership, goal accomplishment was never guaranteed.  According to Kouzes and Posner (2012), titleswill not make an individual leader; it was how he behaves in the organizationthat makes a difference.

  Exemplaryleaders know that if they want to gain commitment and achieve higheststandards, they must be models of the behaviour they expect of others.  Leaders’ deeds were far more important thantheir words when constituents want to determine how serious leaders really areabout what they say.  Leading by exampleis more effective than leading by command.  Significance of the StudyThis study aims to determinethe correlation between leadership practices and institutional performance of medical technology education and the result of this study will deem besignificant to the following:1.   School Administrators to develop a moreappropriate measure, provdie intensive training for educational leaders thatare deem important maintain or continueincreasing the level of performance of theinstitution;2.   EducationalLeaders (Dean and Program Head) to examine carefully the current leadershippractices they possess and somewhere, somehow pick and adopt the findings ofthis study that they feel can help them yield better outcome.3.

   Faculty and staff to be more motivated and encouraged toperform better towards achieving mission/vision of the university/college;4.   Future researchers this may serveas a significant reference as they work on with their research problem.  Definition ofTermsThe followingwords and phrases are described on how they are used in this study.Leadership Practice/s.  It is a leadership behavior or style that theleader is using or practicing in a day-to-day operation.InstitutionalPerformance.  This refers to the outcomeachieved by the school/college/university in terms of board performance,accreditation level, and graduation rate.

MedicalTechnology Education. A program that is offered by any higherinstitution.  It is a four-year courseconsisting of general education and professional courses.  Passing the board exam is pre-requisite topracting the profession.  NationalCapital Region.

It refers to the local setting where the respondents where taken byrandom selection of schools offering the medical technology education.Scope andDelimitation of the StudyThis studyfocuses on leadership practices and its correlation with the institutionalperformance of medical technology education in the National Capital Region.The leadershippractices will be limited to five (5) categories: (1) model the way; (2)inspire a shared vision; (3) challenge the process; (4) enable others to act;(5) encourage the heart. The level ofinstitutional performance will only be limited to the three (3) indicators: (1)board performance; (2) accreditation level; (3) graduation rate. Consideringonly few selected schools/colleges/universities offering the program, medicaltechnology education in the national capital region would comprise the keyrespondents in this study.

         

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