THE PROBLEM – ITS BACKGROUND
Leading is a process of influencing and
directing the activities of an organized group to accomplish goals by
communicating with them. Leadership
therefore premised on interpersonal relationship; hence a leader must belong to
a group. What this implies is the
leadership thrives in an organization.
According to Adebakin and Gbadamosi (1996) organization comprise of two
or more people who exist on continuous basis with the intention of
accomplishing set goal(s).
The success of an organization,
particularly the higher educational institution cannot only be judged on how
far it has grown in terms of revenue, but more importantly is the measure of
its performance in many aspects such as number of graduates, board performance,
competent teaching and non-teaching staffs, and accreditation level. Along with
these many aspects, a competent leader with good quality leadership behaviour
and styles is also a key to success.
Leadership behaviour and style is the
way in which the functions of leadership are carried out, the way in which
managers typically behave towards members of the group.
Within an organization, leadership
influences will be dependent upon the type of power that the leader can
exercise over the workers. Power is the
capacity to influence. Okafor defines
power as capacity to influence another
through a control over needed resources.
In the Philippines, the
public judges the quality of education offered by higher education institution
by looking at the results of board examinations consistent with the number of graduates and the accreditation
level awarded by the accrediting institutions like Philippine Accrediting
Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAASCU), Philippine Association of Colleges and
Universities Commission on Accreditation (PACUCOA).
There has been a report on educational quality, through a large-scale
assessment at the national and local levels and this has also been a major
concern of all higher education institutions in the country. In one of the reports of Commission of Higher
Education that the deterioration of the quality of higher education is one of
its critical areas of concern.
It is in this premise that this research study is being conducted. While it is true in some but may not be true
to all higher education institution.
At present there are approximately more than 100* schools, colleges, and
universities offering Medical Technology Education in the Philippines. Some
existed since the birth of Medical Technology Education in the country and are
still operating with exemplary performance and majority are new. Beginning from
offering a basic training in the hospital to a more extensive, the program is
now being considered to be one of the hardest among many programs being offered
in the higher education institution.
The program Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology/Bachelor of
Science in Laboratory Science is a four-year program consisting of general
education and professional courses. The
aims of this program are as follows: For the graduates to (a) develop the
knowledge, skills, professional attitudes, and values in the performance of
clinical laboratory procedures needed to help the physician in the proper
diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of diseases; (b) acquire
critical thinking skills in Medical Technology/Medical Laboratory Science; (c)
engage in research and community-related activities; (d) participate in
activities related to promoting the profession and actively engage in life-long
learning undertaking; and (e) develop collaborative and leadership qualities.
The continuous existence and success of this program can be linked to
the qualities and behaviour of the person who are taking the responsibilities
as leaders in their respective institution.
Based on the guidelines for the implementation of CMO No. 46 s. 2012,
the Policies, Standards and Guidelines for the Bachelor of Science in Medical
Technology/Medical Laboratory Science (BSM/MLS) implements the “shift to
learning competency-based standards/outcomes-based education”. It specifies the core competencies’ expected of
BS Medical Technology/Medical Laboratory Science graduates “regardless of the
type of HEI they graduate from. However,
in “recognition of the spirit of Outcomes-Based Education” (OBE), this PSG
allow HEI to initiate curricular innovations
“in line with the assessment of how best to achieve learning outcomes in
their particular contexts and their respective missions…”
The implementation of this PSG is course through the leaders such as the
deans and heads of the program of each and every higher education institution
where the program is offered.
Flores (2009), cited that transformational leadership can also be
applied to educational leadership since in the same practice, it awards the use
of power and authority to control others rather than it centers on the related
concepts of integration as the main element of leadership. Beach and Reihnarts described leadership as
follows: (1) a vision with high but realistic goals that create a culture that
guides the organizations and each member; (2) trust in people and prompt,
frequent and concrete feedback to them as they use their interpersonal skills
to work effectively with others; (3) an ability to communicate with teachers
and others; (4) integrity – charaterized by honesty and willingness to tkae
personal responsibility for their behavior and actions; (5) an ability to
diagnosse, selects appropriate processes and procedures and takes risks and;
(6) an ability to unite effort with purpose.
Statement of the Problem
Given the perceived importance of
leadership and the central role administrators’ play in the effectiveness of
the school, it is not surprising that researchers in the field have dedicated
themselves to investigating various leadership theories and the theoretical
basis on which educational leaders base their leadership style and
practices. Many of these theories have
been influential in guiding school leaders (Manzano, et al., 2005); however,
transformational leadership is the favoured style of leadership because it
assumed to a leadership practice that produces results beyond expectations
(Bass, 1985; Burns,1978). According to
Leithwood (1994), transformational forms of leadership have the potential for
building high levels of commitment and fostering growth in school staffs. While it is true in some schools it may not
be true to others.
It is for this reason why the researcher would like identify if there is
a direct influence of leadership style and practices of the deans and or heads of the different units or colleges in the
selected universities and colleges in National Capital
This study aims to determine the
relationship between leadership practices and institutional performance.
It is in this light that the researcher
would like to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1 Age and Gender;
1.2 Civil Status;
1.3 Highest Educational
1.4 Years in the service?
2. How can the leadership practices of deans and/or program heads from
the selected universities and colleges in the National Capital Region be
described based on assessment of the respondents as to:
2.1 Model the way
2.2 Inspire a shared vision
2.3 Challenge the process
2.4 Enable others to act
2.5 Encourage the heart
3. What is the level of institutional performance of the selected
universities and colleges in Quezon City in terms of:
3.1. board exam results
3.3. graduation rate
4. Is there is a significant difference in the responses of the three
(3) groups of participants as to the leadership practices of the deans, program
5. Is there a significant relationship between the leadership practices and institutional
performance of the selected universities and colleges in National Capital
leadership-based model can be proposed to help improve institutional
School effectiveness is always linked with
leadership. In the absence of
leadership, goal accomplishment was never guaranteed. According to Kouzes and Posner (2012), titles
will not make an individual leader; it was how he behaves in the organization
that makes a difference. Exemplary
leaders know that if they want to gain commitment and achieve highest
standards, they must be models of the behaviour they expect of others. Leaders’ deeds were far more important than
their words when constituents want to determine how serious leaders really are
about what they say. Leading by example
is more effective than leading by command.
Significance of the Study
This study aims to determine
the correlation between leadership practices and institutional performance of medical technology education and the result of this study will deem be
significant to the following:
1. School Administrators to develop a more
appropriate measure, provdie intensive training for educational leaders that
are deem important maintain or continue
increasing the level of performance of the
Leaders (Dean and Program Head) to examine carefully the current leadership
practices they possess and somewhere, somehow pick and adopt the findings of
this study that they feel can help them yield better outcome.
3. Faculty and staff to be more motivated and encouraged to
perform better towards achieving mission/vision of the university/college;
4. Future researchers this may serve
as a significant reference as they work on with their research problem.
words and phrases are described on how they are used in this study.
Leadership Practice/s. It is a leadership behavior or style that the
leader is using or practicing in a day-to-day operation.
Performance. This refers to the outcome
achieved by the school/college/university in terms of board performance,
accreditation level, and graduation rate.
Technology Education. A program that is offered by any higher
institution. It is a four-year course
consisting of general education and professional courses. Passing the board exam is pre-requisite to
practing the profession.
Capital Region. It refers to the local setting where the respondents where taken by
random selection of schools offering the medical technology education.
Delimitation of the Study
focuses on leadership practices and its correlation with the institutional
performance of medical technology education in the National Capital Region.
practices will be limited to five (5) categories: (1) model the way; (2)
inspire a shared vision; (3) challenge the process; (4) enable others to act;
(5) encourage the heart.
The level of
institutional performance will only be limited to the three (3) indicators: (1)
board performance; (2) accreditation level; (3) graduation rate.
only few selected schools/colleges/universities offering the program, medical
technology education in the national capital region would comprise the key
respondents in this study.