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 CHAPTER1THEPROBLEM AND ITS SETTINGIntroduction            Students play a crucial role in the society.

They serveas the foundation of the future generations. A student’s main purpose is tostudy and acquire information to contribute to self-growth and be able to shareknowledge to others. Other than home, the easiest way to learn is going toschool. Schools are institutions made specifically for learning. Memoryretention is very essential in learning especially in situations when you haveto recall a specific lesson for recitation or the homework that the teachergave before leaving the school premises.            Inthe past, where there’s little or almost no modes of transportation available,students walk their way to their respective schools even if it’s miles away.But thanks to the innovative emergence of alternative means, different modes oftransportation are now accessible to everyone, especially students.            Astime flies, more and more vehicles (both private and public) now occupy thestreets of the Philippines, specifically in Manila.

CNN Philippines (2015)reported Manila topping the longest minute spent in commuting survey conductedby a GPS-based navigation app called Waze and named it as a city that has the”worst traffic on Earth”. This issue does not only apply to the workers but forthe students also who commute on a regular basis to go to their respectiveschools or universities.             Notonly does traffic and other modes of transportation hindrances can affectstudent’s academic performance, this study seek to find out if there is arelationship between the respondent’s home distance and memory retention.

TheoreticalFramework            Several theories have been used to understand how thememory functions. As well as how these people affects physically andemotionally because several phenomena.Theoryon How Memory FunctionsScientists don’t entirely grasp howthe memory organizes. They can’t predict what occurs while recalling a memory. Thebrain’s organization and storage of memories have been an infinite journey forcognitive researchers for decades but have enough theories to formulateeducated guesses regarding the subject.According to Mohs (2007), the processof memory starts with encoding, then progress its way to storage and finally,retrieval. Formation of memory begins specifically through sensory andperception, and requires paying attention.            Itwill be then stored in short term memory which is known to have smallcapacities.

Essential learning may be transported to long term memory,especially when used frequently. Long term memory is known to store unlimitedmemories that make it easier to recall when needed. Experts find difficulty in identifyingthe difference between true forgetting and failed retrieval of specificinformation stored in the long term memory.Theoryabout the Relationship between Short term memory and Long term memory * According to Alison Preston, upgradingshort term memory to long term memory need the help of time have to beunforgettable for it to become permanent or stay longer in a person’s memory.

Memories have different values. As memories combine in the storage ofmemory it will undergo changes, the longer memories are, the more it becomesblurry. But if one event have other connections to newer memories, there is apossibility that these memories will stay longer and still become intact insidethe memory storage. The process of transferring short termto long term memory and spreading information through the neurons depends onthe hippocampus (Preston, 2007). The movement of neurons is responsible forfiltering the memories being pushed inside the memory storage. If the neuroncan communicate with another neuron, then there is a possible way for thememory to have the unforgettable factor and become long term after being in theshort term area. Having the same information on memory to another memory canhelp recalling the other one.

As time passes, the systems supporting the cellswill become brittle. A person may remember a particular memory but not as clearas before. To prove this idea, Preston set oldpeople who developed dementia or Alzheimer’s disease as an example of memoriesfading away through time. There are many ways to prevent this kind ofsituations. One important way is to have a good amount of sleep, water andexercise. Drinking supplements like vitamins to strengthen memory can alsohelp.

Having a good and healthy lifestyle can affect the cells inside aperson’s brain to function well and be able to restore more memories. Theory of Forgetting *             Whydo people forget their past memories? Many studies are conducted regarding thistopic and different theories have been made such as fading caused by time andthe other is that the memory somehow failed to be retrieved. Experts developeda theory about forgetting short and long term memory. The brain’s capacity finds itdifficult to grasp small details at once as suggested by the displacementtheory. The old memories decay and replaced by the newer ones.

According toMurdocks (1962) the short term memory fades due to replacement by the newerones or decays because of staying too long over a period of time.             However,interference theory says that long term memory can be interfered by the othermemories so it will obliterate the original path of one particular memory.That’s why doubt sometimes occur when recalling a past memory from a long timeago. Because of this the information from the original memory will becomeedited and not have an assurance. There are two ways of interference that cancause forgetting.

One is proactive interference, where you can learn otherinformations because it will flourish other informations that is inside yourmind. The second one is the retroactive interference. Where you will fullyforgot your memory because of your current memory.

For example when you have anew phone number, you will have to memorize it, and because you have anothernumber, you will not need to remember your past number. It will be forgottenbecause you created a new one.                         ConceptualFramework            Figure 1 presents the research paradigm of the study. Theinput variables show the demographic profile of respondents in terms of age, sex,strand and distance from school. Process covers the steps needed for analyzingdata from respondents.

Finally, the output presents the significant correlationbetween home distance and memory retention. INPUT   PROCESS   OUTPUT   Demographic Profile of Respondents 1.1.

Age 1.2.Sex 1.3.Strand 1.

4.Distance from School        Statementof the Problem This study aims to find out thecorrelation on the effects of home distance on memory retention of Senior HighSchool Students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines.Specifically, it wants to answer thefollowing questions:1.   Whatis the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the followingvariables1.1.

       Age1.2.       Sex1.3.       Strand1.

4.       Distancefrom school2.    How many hours do the respondents allot fortravel from home to school3.   Doeshome distance affect the respondents’ memory retentionHypothesis            Theresearchers formulated a null hypothesis that there is no correlation betweenhome distance of Senior High School students of Polytechnic University of thePhilippines and memory retention.

Scopeand Limitations of the Study            This study is delimited to Polytechnic University of thePhilippines, Sta. Mesa Main campus only. Through this setting, the students inSenior High School from different strands were drawn. Generalization of thestudy’s findings is limited to PUP and other schools in Manila in which thestudents have similar situations.

            Theother limitation is that time and funds for conducting this research werelimited. This is the reason why only one campus and only Senior High schoolstudents are involved.Significanceof the Study            The results of this study may benefit the followingStudents.

Through this study, students,especially those who are obligated to provide greater time and effort in goingto school would be informed of the possible effects on memory retention oftheir home distances to schools.Teachers.The findings of thisstudy may help the teachers derive teaching strategies that will be moresuccessful and effective for the students. It may also improve theirunderstanding on the students who have live in greater distances from school. Psychologists.

As this studyinvolves cognitive aspects, specifically memory, the professionals such as thepsychologists can improve the scope of this study and provide more generalconclusions.Departmentof Transportation and Communications (DOTC). The findings of this study may help this sect ofgovernment address transportation hindrances and derive for further developmentand improvement of overall transport systems in the country.Commuters.

Through this study,commuters will be aware that home distances and travel may or may not affecttheir memory retention. Through this, they can address the possible effectseven in the middle of the traffic. FutureResearchers. Forthose researchers in the future that will conduct a similar study to thesubject of this research, the findings will be beneficial to them as a sourceof reference and comparison of data gathered.Definitionof TermsFor a better understanding of theresearch, the following terms are provided with their operational definitions.

                Memory is the concept in whichinformation is perceived or encoded by the human brain and stored for laterretrieval. Retention is the ability in keeping orpreserving experiences and learning that makes a recall or recognition. Hindrance is an act of making orcausing vehicles to stop, preventing motorist to move forward.Traffic Congestion is a term thatdescribes an act being stocked in the midst of slow moving vehicles.  

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