PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Students play a crucial role in the society. They serve
as the foundation of the future generations. A student’s main purpose is to
study and acquire information to contribute to self-growth and be able to share
knowledge to others. Other than home, the easiest way to learn is going to
school. Schools are institutions made specifically for learning. Memory
retention is very essential in learning especially in situations when you have
to recall a specific lesson for recitation or the homework that the teacher
gave before leaving the school premises.
the past, where there’s little or almost no modes of transportation available,
students walk their way to their respective schools even if it’s miles away.
But thanks to the innovative emergence of alternative means, different modes of
transportation are now accessible to everyone, especially students.
time flies, more and more vehicles (both private and public) now occupy the
streets of the Philippines, specifically in Manila. CNN Philippines (2015)
reported Manila topping the longest minute spent in commuting survey conducted
by a GPS-based navigation app called Waze and named it as a city that has the
“worst traffic on Earth”. This issue does not only apply to the workers but for
the students also who commute on a regular basis to go to their respective
schools or universities.
only does traffic and other modes of transportation hindrances can affect
student’s academic performance, this study seek to find out if there is a
relationship between the respondent’s home distance and memory retention.
Several theories have been used to understand how the
memory functions. As well as how these people affects physically and
emotionally because several phenomena.
on How Memory Functions
Scientists don’t entirely grasp how
the memory organizes. They can’t predict what occurs while recalling a memory. The
brain’s organization and storage of memories have been an infinite journey for
cognitive researchers for decades but have enough theories to formulate
educated guesses regarding the subject.
According to Mohs (2007), the process
of memory starts with encoding, then progress its way to storage and finally,
retrieval. Formation of memory begins specifically through sensory and
perception, and requires paying attention.
will be then stored in short term memory which is known to have small
capacities. Essential learning may be transported to long term memory,
especially when used frequently. Long term memory is known to store unlimited
memories that make it easier to recall when needed. Experts find difficulty in identifying
the difference between true forgetting and failed retrieval of specific
information stored in the long term memory.
about the Relationship between Short term memory and Long term memory *
According to Alison Preston, upgrading
short term memory to long term memory need the help of time have to be
unforgettable for it to become permanent or stay longer in a person’s memory.
Memories have different values.
As memories combine in the storage of
memory it will undergo changes, the longer memories are, the more it becomes
blurry. But if one event have other connections to newer memories, there is a
possibility that these memories will stay longer and still become intact inside
the memory storage.
The process of transferring short term
to long term memory and spreading information through the neurons depends on
the hippocampus (Preston, 2007). The movement of neurons is responsible for
filtering the memories being pushed inside the memory storage. If the neuron
can communicate with another neuron, then there is a possible way for the
memory to have the unforgettable factor and become long term after being in the
short term area. Having the same information on memory to another memory can
help recalling the other one. As time passes, the systems supporting the cells
will become brittle. A person may remember a particular memory but not as clear
To prove this idea, Preston set old
people who developed dementia or Alzheimer’s disease as an example of memories
fading away through time. There are many ways to prevent this kind of
situations. One important way is to have a good amount of sleep, water and
exercise. Drinking supplements like vitamins to strengthen memory can also
help. Having a good and healthy lifestyle can affect the cells inside a
person’s brain to function well and be able to restore more memories.
Theory of Forgetting *
do people forget their past memories? Many studies are conducted regarding this
topic and different theories have been made such as fading caused by time and
the other is that the memory somehow failed to be retrieved. Experts developed
a theory about forgetting short and long term memory.
The brain’s capacity finds it
difficult to grasp small details at once as suggested by the displacement
theory. The old memories decay and replaced by the newer ones. According to
Murdocks (1962) the short term memory fades due to replacement by the newer
ones or decays because of staying too long over a period of time.
interference theory says that long term memory can be interfered by the other
memories so it will obliterate the original path of one particular memory.
That’s why doubt sometimes occur when recalling a past memory from a long time
ago. Because of this the information from the original memory will become
edited and not have an assurance. There are two ways of interference that can
cause forgetting. One is proactive interference, where you can learn other
informations because it will flourish other informations that is inside your
mind. The second one is the retroactive interference. Where you will fully
forgot your memory because of your current memory. For example when you have a
new phone number, you will have to memorize it, and because you have another
number, you will not need to remember your past number. It will be forgotten
because you created a new one.
Figure 1 presents the research paradigm of the study. The
input variables show the demographic profile of respondents in terms of age, sex,
strand and distance from school. Process covers the steps needed for analyzing
data from respondents. Finally, the output presents the significant correlation
between home distance and memory retention.
Profile of Respondents
1.4.Distance from School
of the Problem
This study aims to find out the
correlation on the effects of home distance on memory retention of Senior High
School Students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
Specifically, it wants to answer the
is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the following
How many hours do the respondents allot for
travel from home to school
home distance affect the respondents’ memory retention
researchers formulated a null hypothesis that there is no correlation between
home distance of Senior High School students of Polytechnic University of the
Philippines and memory retention.
and Limitations of the Study
This study is delimited to Polytechnic University of the
Philippines, Sta. Mesa Main campus only. Through this setting, the students in
Senior High School from different strands were drawn. Generalization of the
study’s findings is limited to PUP and other schools in Manila in which the
students have similar situations.
other limitation is that time and funds for conducting this research were
limited. This is the reason why only one campus and only Senior High school
students are involved.
of the Study
The results of this study may benefit the following
Students. Through this study, students,
especially those who are obligated to provide greater time and effort in going
to school would be informed of the possible effects on memory retention of
their home distances to schools.
The findings of this
study may help the teachers derive teaching strategies that will be more
successful and effective for the students. It may also improve their
understanding on the students who have live in greater distances from school.
As this study
involves cognitive aspects, specifically memory, the professionals such as the
psychologists can improve the scope of this study and provide more general
of Transportation and Communications (DOTC). The findings of this study may help this sect of
government address transportation hindrances and derive for further development
and improvement of overall transport systems in the country.
Through this study,
commuters will be aware that home distances and travel may or may not affect
their memory retention. Through this, they can address the possible effects
even in the middle of the traffic.
those researchers in the future that will conduct a similar study to the
subject of this research, the findings will be beneficial to them as a source
of reference and comparison of data gathered.
For a better understanding of the
research, the following terms are provided with their operational definitions.
Memory is the concept in which
information is perceived or encoded by the human brain and stored for later
Retention is the ability in keeping or
preserving experiences and learning that makes a recall or recognition.
Hindrance is an act of making or
causing vehicles to stop, preventing motorist to move forward.
Traffic Congestion is a term that
describes an act being stocked in the midst of slow moving vehicles.