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Chapter 1


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Soil deposits in nature exist in an extremely irregular
manner producing thereby an infinite variety of combination which will affect
the strength of the soil and many procedures to make it purposeful.  Engineers are often
faced with the problem of constructing facilities on or with soils ,which do
not possess sufficient strength to support the loads imposed upon them either
during construction or during the service life of the structure .Many areas of
India consists of soils with high silt contents, low strengths and poor bearing
capacities .The poor engineering performance of such soils has forced Engineers
to attempt to improve the engineering properties of poor quality soils .There
are various methods that could be used to improve the performance of poor
quality soils. The choice of a particular method depends mainly on the type of
soil to be improved, its characteristics and the type and degree of improvement
desired in a particular application. Stabilization of soils is an effective
method for improving the properties of soil and pavement system performance.

Soil stabilization is a process which improves the physical
properties of soil, such as increasing shear strength, bearing capacity etc.
which can be done by use of controlled compaction or addition of suitable
admixtures like cement, lime and waste materials like fly ash, phosphor gypsum
etc. The technique of soil stabilization using plastic can be effectively used
to meet the challenges of society, to reduce the quantities of waste, producing
useful material from non-useful waste materials.

Increased use of plastics in day to day consumer
applications has resulted in the municipal solid waste, an ever growing
fraction of plastic materials which were used for a short time and then
discarded. The linear consumption patterns of plastic bags involving single
usage and then disposal has led to environmental challenges such as diminishing
landfill space, marine and urban littering. There is, therefore a growing need
to find alternative uses of reclaimed plastic bag waste to lengthen the usage
time of the plastic material and thereby save the degrading environment. The
concept of reinforcing soil masses with strips of plastic cover may be
relatively, a new development. In contrast, the use of random-materials as
reinforcement for soil is probably not older than written history, but only
sparsely represented.

Utilizing new soil
stabilization technology, a process of cross-linking of soil and plastic can
replace traditional road/house construction methods in an environmentally friendly and effective way.













Chapter 2



2.1 Soil Stabilization by using Plastic Waste

Arpitha G C,
Dayanandha B V, Kiran kumar patil and Shruti Neeralagi

Department of Civil Engineering, Amruta Institute of
Engineering and Management Sciences, Bidadi, Bangalore (India)

 From this study, we
can conclude that plastic bottle strips can be used to increase the CBR value
of a soil considerably. In this study we can see that the maximum CBR value can
be achived when 2% amount of plastic bottle strips are added to the soil. but
it decreases when further amount of plastic bottle strips is from this
study,0.75% is optimum amount of the strips that can added to soil the soil for
efficient use.

 We can conclude from
the results obtained after performing the test with plastic bag strips that 2%
of the total weight of the soil is the optimum proportion of strips cut from
plastic bags to be added to the soil for reinforcement. But it decreases when further
amount of plastic bags strips is added. 
We can also state from this study that strips cut out of plastic bottles
are a better option than the strips cut out of plastic bags, as the cutting of
plastic waste from bags is too laboures and time consuming ,to enhance the CBR
value of the soil.


2.2 Soil stabilization by using Plastic

V. Mallikarjuna and T.
Bindu Mani

Department of Civil Engineering, V.R. Siddhartha Engineering
College, Vijayawada.

In the present study, the improved CBR value of the soil is
due to the addition of plastic strips. Plastic can be utilized as one of the
material that can be used as a soil stabilizing agent but the proper proportion
of plastic must be there, which helps in increasing the CBR of the soil.

 It can be concluded
that CBR percentage goes on increasing up to 4% plastic content in the soil and
thereon it decreases with increase in plastic content. Hence, we can say that
4% plastic content is the optimum content of plastic waste in the soil.


2.3 Soil Stabilization using Plastic

Jasmin Varghese Kalliyath,
Jithin Thomas Joy, Jeny Merin Paul, and Antony Mathew Vadakkel.

Department of Civil Engineering Amal Jyothi College of
Engineering, Kanjirapally.

This project is focused on the review of performance of
plastic fiber as a soil stabilization material. The study suggests that if
plastic fiber if properly mixed and applied, can be used as a great soil
stabilization technique .On the basis of this project the following results
were obtained.

1) The replacement of 0.5% plastic fibers to the expansive
clayey soil reduce its OMC and increased the Maximum Dry Density.

 2) The unconfined
compressive strength of the soil was found to be increased for 0.5%.

3) With 1% replacement it was observed that the MDD &
UCC was less than the 0.5% replacement but was greater than the untreated soil.

4) Further increase in the plastic replacement showed
decrease in the MDD and the Unconfined Compressive Strength of the soil.

5) Based on the non-problematic soil criteria, the optimum
percentage of plastic is recommended as 0.5% which will improve the engineering
properties of the silty clay.

6) The increase in the Maximum Dry Density of the soil is
due to the decrease in the number of voids with the addition of plastic which
leads to effective compaction and also increase in the cohesion.


2.4 Soil Stabilization using Plastic

Dr. Babitharani.H,
Ashwini D G, Pavan siva kumar.Ch, Dimple Bahri, Koushik.B, Sindhu Shankar

Department of Civil Engineering, SET, Jain University, India

 From this study we
can concluded that fiber reinforced soil can be considered to be good ground
improvement technique specially in engineering projects on weak soil where it
can act as a substitute to deep/raft foundations, reducing the cost as well as
energy and the result from the UCS test for soil sample are also similar, for
reinforcement of 0.05%, 0.15% and 0.25%, the increase in UCS from the initial
value are 35.31%, 1.1% and 8.8% respectively. This increment is substantial and
applying it for soil sample is effective.



Prof. Harish C,
Ashwini HM

Department of Civil Engineering, East West Institute of
Technology, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

In this study plastic stripes were made out of this plastic
wastage and are used in making the payment and it is found that there is an
increase in the strength of the soil. California Bearing Ratio test was carried
out to find the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content. The CBR was
conducted for soil mixed with plastic strips. The CBR test is conducted for the
red soil and black cotton soil, adding the 0.7% of plastic stripes to red soil
and 0.5% for the black cotton soil it is found that the strength of the soil is
increased resulting the bearing ratio of 2.9 for red soil and 3.3 for the black
cotton soil. As it economic in nature and hazard free it is the one of the best
solution for re-utilization of the plastic wastage.






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