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Calculus. A subject that has amassed over different
concepts, theorems, and the like. Its complex structure is that of a key figure
in the world of mathematics. As far as history goes, the invention of calculus
was a great advancement; a marvelous achievement to be added to the world of
science. Calculus was big at the time for its breakthrough in the field of
research, physics, and science overall. So, with all this talk of calculus
there is one question that comes to mind: who came up with it? Obviously for
something to be discovered, there should be someone behind it; every invention
has its inventor. Therefore, we would have to assume in one way or another that
calculus has an inventor. But, who exactly? Well, with further research into
the topic, there are top two names – both of which have prominent roles in the
early stages of calculus. These two names are also well known in the scientific
world for each of their contributions to the field. These two prominent names
are none other than Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz themselves. As
mentioned earlier, these two individuals are well known and have solidified
positions in the field of science and the latter. They are both highly
respected for their works and contributions. With that, it has always been an
ongoing debate for which person was solely responsible for the creation
(rather, discovery) of calculus. Why is that, exactly? I, for one, am not sure.
I honestly do not care if calculus must have only one inventor or discoverer.
However, I have indeed read about how Sir Isaac Newton tried to expose his
colleague Gottfried Leibniz for plagiarism of his own works at one point.
Perhaps that is the reason why the debate exists in the first place – it started
as a controversy between these two prominent names of which one or the other
deserves the rightful credit. I will, of course, get back to that later on but
for now, let us get an overview of the situation of both these characters. This
long-running debate is alternatively termed the “calculus controversy” for its overall
importance in the subject matter itself. To start this off, we must take a look
at each of these two contributors and their background in order to come up with
a hypothesis on which one comes on top and triumphant. First, let us take a
look at the famous and critically acclaimed Sir Isaac Newton. Now, Sir Isaac
Newton was a well-known and highly reputable English mathematician. Sir Isaac
Newton is responsible for the discovery of gravity, the creation and
establishing of the three laws of motion, and the formulation of the color
spectrum through the scattering of white visible light as we know of it today. Isaac
Newton has also developed an empirical law of cooling, discovered the universally
revered binomial theorem, and moved the British pound into the gold standard.
To add to this, of course, Newton provided the field of science with calculus,
a study that he proposed in his famous book Principia Mathematica, which is
considered to be one of the greatest books ever written for the field of
mathematics, physics, and science. Now, how about Leibniz? Do not take this man
lightly, either; he, too, has had some major contributions to the field of
science on his own accord. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German mathematician
who developed the binary system that serves as the basis of all modern
electronic devices we use today, contributed some of his ideas and thoughts to
the theory of everything (also known as the monadology), and invented modern
formal logic. Gottfried Leibniz is also known for anticipating the discoveries
of Albert Einstein with his own metaphysical theory of dynamism, theorized
about an early computer to solve algebraic expressions, and explored the field
that is now known as the field of topology. In addition to all of his marvelous
works and contributions, Leibniz is known to have provided the field of science
with calculus in his own different method and way. Strangely enough, both of
these two men invented calculus in their own methods until they died and the
two individuals left the world believing that only one man can claim all the
credit for the discovery or invention of calculus. In 1666, Sir Isaac Newton
was one of the countless and many students at Cambridge University who were sent
home on account of the great plague at the time. In his spare time, Newton
developed what we now know as calculus in order to solve physics problems.
However, he called calculus the method of fluxions at first. Fluxion is his
term for a derivative of a continuous function. Sir Isaac Newton mainly used
geometric proofs for his new theory and relied on limits and concrete reality
rather than concepts in theory. However, as was typical with Newton, he
withheld his extraordinary findings for many years refusing to publish them for
the rest of the world. Meanwhile, Gottfried Leibnitz began working on his form
of calculus in 1674 while staying in Paris. On November 11th of
1675, he made a breakthrough finding the area under the graph of the function y
equals f of x (or written as y=f(x)). He invented a whole new system of
notation for his discovery using an elongated letter S for the latin word “summa”
for integration and D for the latin word “differentia” for differentials.
Leibniz published his first account of differential calculus in 1684 and then
published an explanation of integral calculus in 1686. A year later, Newton
finally got around to publishing his findings and produced the Principia Mathematica.
In the book, he described his famous law of motion, his law of universal
gravitation, and a derivation of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Throughout
the book, Newton used calculus to back up his physical theories. However, since
Leibniz had published first, it was he who took sole credit for this amazing
new field of mathematics. In the big picture, both of these men are responsible
for calculus. Newton simply lacked a standard notation and heavily relied on
geometric proofs of infinitesimals. Leibniz and Newton both based their work on
this concept. Infinitesimals were (as stated) quantities that were not zero yet
smaller in absolute value than any real number. They were necessary because the
concept of the limit was not fully flourished. Infinitesimals were on
ungrounded philosophical and mathematical bases and many refused to accept
calculus based on these infirm ideas. By this time, Newton set out on a mission
to expose Leibniz for plagiarism. He argued that Leibniz had connections to him
and some of Newton’s unpublished writings may have found a way into Leibniz’s
hands. The two men have also corresponded through letters quite recently through
sharing ideas about mathematics. In the end, Newton was presumed to have won
over the debate, since he had amassed more friends and supporters compared to
Leibniz. So, even though Newton was more circulated as the prime creator of
calculus, it is still reasonable to suggest that both men have developed
calculus in their own different and special methods.

To keep this essay brief, I shall deliver my three
routinary activities in a few sentences. The first routinary activity that
involves calculus is setting my alarm at 5:55 am. The trick here is I do not
usually get up and out of bed right after the alarm goes. In order to counter
this and the potential waste of time, I set the alarm at 5:55 so that I do not
have to get up after 6 am. I can be aware that I am awake before 6 since that
is the time when I should get ready for school. The limit that I want to set is
6 but I should try not to wake up exactly at 6 since I want to be early. The
second activity is the amount of rice I put on my plate. Of course, moderation
of food should always be observed. The number of rice cups should be reflective
of the person, as is the method done by people in a diet. For me, my moderation
should limit to about 4 cups of rice. This should be my limit and it must not
go over that number. The last activity is my time on the computer. For some
time now, my eyes have become strained from the long exposure I endure at
night. In order to remedy this, I have decided to limit my use of the computer
to 3 hours at maximum. Now, that is my limit for my moderation.

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