Bio-Pigment Production: Pigments, Resources and
organism have different pigments that give color to organism as well as play a developmental
role. Mostly living organisms meet their surrounding through different colors and
colors play a great role in attraction because things can be accepted or even
rejected base on their color. Today, there is focus on synthetic biological synthesis
of pigments through microbes or fungi by fermentation technology. Bacteria and
fungi are mostly use because they have properties like fast growth and easy processing.
Microbial pigments offer several advantages like they can be use as anticancer,
immunosuppressive and antiproliferative. These pigments can also be use in
different industries like food, pharmaceutical, textile etc. The demand natural
pigment has been increased due to harmful impact of synthetic chemicals. This
review outlines different pigments, their resources and natural and synthetic production
of these pigments.
Pigments are chemical compound that
have ability to absorb light and produce color due to chromophore. Chromophore
capture the light as a result electron get excited and jump to higher orbit and
release colored wavelength of light energy. Pigments are present in almost
every organism, plants are primary producer, so, we encountered with pigments
at every step of our lives. They are present in leaves, fruits, vegetables and
flowers as well as in eyes, skins and other animal structures. They are also
produced in variety of fungi and bacteria. Synthetic and natural pigments have
applications in food, medicines, cosmetic, clothes and many more. Natural
pigments have very important function other than just beauty like chlorophyll
and carotenoid play a role in photosynthesis. When plant are under stress they produce
flavonoids in high amount and quinones have ability to convert light into
chemical energy. Hemoglobin in animal play a role in oxygen transport. Melanin
is major pigment in animals and human that give protection against sun rays.
Many fungi also produced melanin that have role in major cycles. Pigments have
variety of pharmacological activities. Traditionally people don’t care about
pigment types but now because of awareness public concern over type of pigment
majorly use in food and other industries. The great work has been done that
link pigments with illness so regulatory authorities have also stricken the
rues about pigment use in different industries.