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Richard O’Gorman Anderson was born August 26,
1936, Kunming, China. 
he died December 12/13, 2015, Batu, Indonesia, Irish political scientist, best
known for his influential work on the origins of nationalism.

In 1983 Anderson publication his book imagined communities . In the book
he imagined  a nation because the member
of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet
them, or hear of them , yet in the minds of each lives the image of their
communion. the nation is imagined as limited because even the largest of them
encompassing perhaps a billion living human beings, has finite, if elastic ,
boundaries , beyond which lie other nation . Finally he imagined as a
communities because regardless of the actual inequality and exploitation that
may prevail in each . the nation is always conceived  as a deep, horizontal comradeship . ultimately
it is this fraternity that make it possible over the past two centuries  for so many million of people not so much to
kill , as willingly die for such limited imaginings.

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In the chapter of
cultural roots Anderson explain two cultural system

1. Religious

2. Dynastic realm

1.  Religious community

Anderson explain
religious community very easily , he told that, different different religious
have different  languages. Religious
language is sacred languages and written script. He use the islam religious as
a example , he tries to explain that when a religious people met other
religious people they can not communicate each other by orally, they
nonetheless understood each others ideographs, because the scared texts they
shared existed only their religious language like as a islam use classical

2. Dynastic realm

The dynastic realm
was a imaginable political system for the fundamental way of serious monarchy
lies transverse  to all modern conception
of political life.     Kingship organizes everything around the
high centre. Anderson Remember that antique monarchical states expended not
only by warfare but by sexul politics

In the chapter 3 Benedict Anderson explain the origin of national
consciousness . in this chapter he explain how how national consciousness
created .

The basic premise of Anderson
theory is that the decline of religion made it possible new conception of time,
which in turn made it possible to imagine the nation. He explain before
nationalism the existed  Christendom
communities base on share language such as latin  furthermore , latin was beginning to decline
and replace by the vernacular .

He describe 3 steps

fields of exchange below latin above vernaculars ,

capitalism give new permanency  to

language of  power


revolutionary vernacularizing thrust of capitalism was given further impetus by
three extraneous factors ,two are directly contributed to rise of national


In the first steps  Anderson told that,

in character of latin if self

and languages of the ancient


In the second Steps,

of the reformation. At the same time Anderson see that print capitalism was
success , 1500-120 many book were published in the germany.


Third was
the slow ,geographically uneven spread of particular varnaculars as instruments
of administrative centralization  by
certain well positioned would be absolutist monarchs   



that , Anderson told that, the birth of administrative vernaculars predate both
print and the religious upheaval of sixteen century .




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