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Balance of payment:  Introduction balance of payment:               Balance of payment which known as BOP which is record of one county to another country or the rest of the world in one year. This is same like balance sheet which need balance of debt and credit which we have need both inflow and outflow to manage it must be in systematic way to record other country whole payment it may contain all import of good and exports of good. Its report are reported weekly, and annually. There are to main thing in balance of payment that a county is in fiscal deficit or in saver this two make thebalance payment disturb the equilibrium. There different crises occur in balance of payment like currency crisis which is occur by unable potential to pay essential import on debts so it directly affect the currency value.There are three ways to correct balance of payment  like practice of payment this can adjustment in exchange rate ,productivity ,internal price etc. Background:     Deficit words use in balance of payment mean county imports of goods are huge than its imports so a court started borrowing for their foreign countries. Word surplus use in balance payment its mean that a county exports are high than his imports than country are savers. this surplus develop the count  economic system in short term in this his industries numbers are increase so they started to hire more and more people to give him jobs.Types of balance of payment: There are three type of balance payment financial account, account of capital and the last is the current account.1. Financial account of balance of payment:     When asset ownership changes internationally it means they asset of foreign ownership converts in domestic assets ,when other country ownership increase than demotic so it create deficit there vice versa is when selling his stocks, gold’s to the foreign countries. Financial account includes securities like direct investment bounds and stock.2. Capital account of balance of payment: It collected the financial transaction occur in country like capital account does not effect by saving and income of county but it include international right like trademark and copyright of products.3. Current account of balance of payment:In this account measure the total inflow and outflow of goods, income and investment transfer payment. There are important thing of current account like physical good it may anything, invest-able goods like service or insurance and also contain international aids.If balance payment of a country is in equilibrium it mean that the country will fill his net credit or position of there different theories are explain the balance of payment like expanse rate effect on trade balance so this analysis will show by electricity approach. Another approach like is domestic spending show us on domestic output.A country import must be in control in sense of specially luxuries items have been huge and impose heavy tariffs and must be less tariff engineering goods, machinery should be allowed.Role of institutions in international business:1. Exchange rate:The exchange rate can greatly influence on the import or exports of any country. The exchange rate determines whether the country should motivate its country’s import or export.Let us suppose an example of china. The currency of china is too low in stock exchange. Therefore china is motivating its exports. Technically if the exchange rate of any country is low the country must focus and motivate its people to export more.Another example is Pakistan, the Pakistan currency exchange rate is also very low. Pakistan must focus on exporting the commodities rather than to import it.The role of government in international business:2. Labor: International business is very much important for any country as it helps to increase the employment in country. International business creates employment opportunities in country and thus reduces the inflation. The cheaper the labor in country creates more chances for other countries to setup large infrastructure in the country.Assume an example of china and Pakistan. The labor is very much cheaper in such countries and thus other large companies setup their manufacturing plant say apple manufacturing plant in china. As labor is cheap is china.Cheap labor can also increase the unemployment in the country. Let us take an example of Pakistan. The lack of infrastructure in Pakistan causes to move the labor of this country to Dubai which creates unemployment in Pakistan.3. Government policy:1. TaxesTaxes play a major role in deciding whether an international business will enter the country or not, Tax is a tool often used by governments to invite a business aboard. A manufacturing country usually has lower taxes to invite an international inside the country e.g. china whereas countries also charge more taxes to international companies just to protect its domestic market.2. Stability and infrastructureOff shore companies usually look at the infrastructure such as natural resources, roads, sea ports, airports, and level of education of country before entering the country. Those country with big sea ports like Dubai, Singapore is a ticket to foreign countries. Furthermore the government stability and the political situation also depends e.g. Pakistan can be a major tourist country but because of terrorism it cannot achieve this task.3. RentsUsually companies look for cheap rents and labor to manufacture their goods off shore, e.g. China is the major manufacture of, Samsung, Apple, Sony LED TV, s due to its cheap labor cost and raw material cost etc.4. International OrganizationsIt is ironic that some major countries in world could control the fate of your country and you can’t do anything about it e.g. America has put Embargo on Iran and South Korea, An embargo is a situation where you put a ban on a country. America doesn’t allow other countries such as UK cannot of businesses with those countries. Also policies of WTO, IMF could be a major conundrum in these countries.ConclusionWhen the payments types are included, BOP account will be balance always. There is possibility of imbalances of individual element of the BOP, in which include current account and capital account, In some countries the result will be in surplus accumulating wealth, while the other countries which are deficit become increasingly indebted. When the one country receipts from other country fall below the payment to foreigners then the disequilibrium arises 

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