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Association between construction contracts and Relational Contract Theory Introduction:???The Construction Industry is Multi dimensional and multi purpose industry, whichinvolves intricate aspects to achieve desired goals and objectives.For execution of projects, many methods of project delivery have been adopted in construction industry. These methods includeConventional delivery methods; Design Bid Build, Design Build and Construction Manager/ General Contractor Method.Traditional and Conventional methods though effective to a large extent but sometimes produce adversarial relations, delays in projects and compromise in quality.The contract and agreement structures for all Conventional methods of Project delivery are similar which defines role of all stakeholders specifically but research studies have showed that there is a notable absence of language in contracts which promotes sustainable and working relationship among the cooperating organisations to achieve objectives as specified in the contract.A newmethod,which mainly relies on greater teamwork and collaboration , enhanced trust and respect among organisations is emerging.It is called Integrated Project Delivery (IPD).It emphasises on developmentof an Integrated team from all organisations taking part in project completion.This methods call for productive interaction between participatingorganisations.This study helps in understanding the relationship between project integration and contracting relationship using Relational Contract Theory, where project integration is”Merging of different disciplines and organisation with different goals, needs and cultures into a single cohesive unit. The relationship Contract theory stresses that success of Project depends upon better interaction, communication and cooperation. It is imperative for project success. There are expected norms which are often observed and implemented in every contractual exchange. These norms are role integrity, reciprocity, flexibility, solidarity, reliance and expectations, restraint of power, propriety of means and harmonisation of conflict. This study presents how frequently behaviour norms appear in different types of project delivery contracts.    Objectives: ? To examine the association between project integration and contracting relationship using relational contract theory behavioural norms.? To explore specific industry contract language to determine if behaviour norms are present in different types of construction contracts. Research  Methodology:??????The research methodology adopted for determining and interpreting the content of text data is “Content Analysis”. In this method, the text is analyzed, with the use of a systematic and defined classification process of coding and distinguish different patterns which are based on valid inference and interpretations. This method helps in extracting objective and specific information by permitting researcher to understand and comprehend social norms in a scientific manner.   Furthermore, the method specifically used in this research is “Interpretive Content Analysis” which is a method of theoretical sampling, the use of analytic categories and continues comparative and cumulative analysis. The researcher studied 11 Construction Contracts in this analysis. These contracts include three DBB contracts, three DB contracts, one CMGC contract and few IPD contracts as mentioned in the following table.TABLE 1    DBB   Contract  AIA A101-2007 / A201-2007 ConsensusDOCS 200  EJCDC C-520 / C-700  Description Owner – General contractor agreement  Owner – General contractor agreement Owner – General contractor agreementDBAIA A141-2004 / Exhibit AConsensus DOCS 415 DBIA 525 / 535Owner – Design-builder agreementOwner – Design-builder agreementOwner – Design-builder agreementCMGCConsensus DOCS 500Owner – CMGC agreement  IPD  AIA C191-2009 ConsensusDOCS 300 General IFOA IPD Standard Agreement Multi-party IPD agreementMulti-party IPD agreementMulti-party IPD agreementMulti-party IPD agreement STEP 1 ;?   First the researcher developed Primary nodes using actual wording of each behavioral norm, such as “ROLE INTEGRITY” .then the author added the words and phrases which is according to the Norm definition. The words which matched the meaning and context of the specified behavioral norms were identified and noted. The author  analyzed all major Behavioral norms separately. While analyzing the different form of contracts, the researcher created child nodes which included synonym words and similar phrases the matched with the behavioral norms. It is a very extensive and exhaustive method which involves careful understanding of method involved. Following is the  table including all primary node and child nodes. But some of the child nodes also overlapped with more than one behavioral norms which are not shown in the following table.TABLE 2 Primary Nodes NO.1) Role Integrity     NO.2) Reciprocity    NO.3) Flexibility    NO.4) Contractual Solidarity     NO.5) Reliance and Expectations      NO.6) Restraint of Power   NO.7) Propriety of Means     NO.8) Harmonization of Conflict                    Child Nodes achieve project goals, in the best interest of the project, benefit the project, perform with integrity, align individual interest  mutually acceptable, jointly, joint agreement, share equally, fairness, good faith, reach consensus  without invalidating the agreement, modifications, incorporating changes, amending the contract  cooperate, cooperation, collaboration, collaborative environment, working together, getting along, assist, assisting, interaction(s), interacting  promise(s), rely on, reliable, reliability, reliance, sharing of information, expectations of others, commitments, obligations  authorization, authority, limitations of  control over, power to, direct means and methods, effort, skills and knowledge, expertise, experienced, expert, standard of care, competent, allocate resources  good faith direct discussion, waiver of claims/damages, dispute resolution, mitigation, mediation, arbitration   This method of analysis was repeated again after three weeks in order to  determine the reliability of analysis.  STEP 2;?   In the second step, the author quantified the frequency of occurrences for each behavior norm in all the contracts under study. The carefully analyzed the  different form of contracts in order to numerically and quantitatively determine the percentage of occurrence of  under study eight  norms of behavior. Following table shows the percentage of occurrence of different behavioral norms in the contracts under study. TABLE 3 CONTRACTSNO.1                 %NO.2                  % NO.3                  %NO.4                  %NO.5                  %NO.6                  %NO.7                  %NO.8                  %AIA A101/A201 200701020010201030ConsensusDOCS 2001224651201229EJCDC C-520/C-7000105023291023AIA A141-20040141402451033ConsensusDOCS 4151525100001535DBIA 525/5350245101001437ConsensusDOCS 500102555051535AIA C191-20091951419681514ConsensusDOCS 3001021329791011General IFOA101371620251019IPD Standard Agreement142571179918 Results and Observations:??????      The review of the Research was carried out ,which provided very clear evidences to the connection between project integration and relational contracting. At first the content analysis showed how frequently and consistently, behavioral norms appear in different types of contracts. Secondly, the frequency analysis provided that the four Integrated Project Delivery Contracts contain all the behavioral norms under study. At the same time it also showed that all other types of contract under study which included Design Bid Build , Design Build and Construction Manager/General Contractor contracts did not contain at least one of the eight behavioral norms. This pattern of missing any one behavioral norm was prevalent throughout all the Construction Contracts except the Integrated Project Delivery types. So it can be safely said that the more integrated the project, the more relational the contract in terms of language used.            If we consider these behavioral norms separately, a very interesting situation was observed. Role integrity occurs when organization align individual goals with project goals. Contractual solidarity occurs when contractual organization focuses less on issues and more on project. When taking these two norms into account, it was observed that these two were the parts of IPD but not of any traditional contract. Which means that Conventional contracts those not directly address and speak of extensive collaboration and aligning individual goals with project goals?The conventional contracts speak more for disputes and conflicts resolution in which IPD lacks behind. This is because of the fact that IPD promotes internal and Cooperative dispute resolution mechanisms. As a result, it can be claimed IPD contracts consider resolution of disputes beforehand through integration and collaboration and conventional contracts can be considered a tool for Dispute resolution. Finally it is proved through this research that IPD Contracts are more relational than Conventional Contracts. 

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