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Assessment of Water Yield: It’s Implication on Agriculture and Water Policy: Case of Hyderabad1Priyanie Amerasinghe, 2Anuradha Adhikari1 Senior Researcher: Human and Environmental Health, International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka, [email protected] Author: Senior Research Associate, Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad, [email protected]: India is already a water stressed country and 84.1% of the available fresh water is used for agriculture purpose. 70% of net cropped area is rain-fed but rainfall pattern is highly skewed towards only 4 monsoonal months. These facts are critical for India as agriculture is an important sector of our economy accounting for 18 per cent of the nation’s GDP in the year 2013-14 and about 7.3 per cent of its exports. More importantly, over 60 per cent of the country’s population, comprising several million small farming households depends on agriculture as a principal income source. Moreover, choice of crop is not determined by the water availability resulting in over exploitation of water resource. In this context, it is important to assess the water naturally available in a landscape so that it can influence the policy making pertaining to irrigation facilities. In recent years, many efforts are initiated to preserve and value ecosystem services. In this regard, the Natural Capital Project integrates ecosystem services into everyday decision making around the world through its model Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST). Out of total 14 modules, one specific module is dedicated to look into Water Yield and Hydropower for assessing the relative contributions of water from different parts of a landscape. This paper will look into the water availability as obtained from the result of this model and its adequacy in the crop production within the study area which will give direction to the irrigation activity in future.Introduction: The world contains an estimated 1400 million cubic km of water. Fresh water accounts for only 0.003% of this vast amount and the only source of water drinking, hygiene, agriculture and industry. Out of that 70% is consumed by agriculture globally (WWF Global n.d.). It takes 1 – 3 tones of water to grow 1kg of cereal (Food and Agrocultural Organisation n.d.). As per International norms, India is already a water stressed country with per capita annual water availability being 1545 cubic metre (UNICEF, FAO, SaciWATERS 2013). In Indian subcontinent, 84.1% fresh water is used for agriculture purpose and 30% of renewable water resource is withdrawn for the same in India (Food and Agrocultural Organisation n.d.). India heavily depends on monsoon for agriculture as evident by 70% of net-cropped area being rain-fed (Hans 2017). But 75% of rainfall in India is concentrated in 4 monsoonal months (Dhar, Kulkarni and Ghose 1978) which is not being brought to productive use due to limited storage capacity of 36 per cent of utilizable resources (Kumar and Bharat 2014) resulting in heavy run off during monsoon and incur huge irrigation cost to sustain agricultural activity throughout the year. These facts are alarming for India as Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted for 13.7% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Production) in 2013, and employed 50% of the workforce (Dhawan 2017). Hence, agriculture has direct implication on two components of capital of human development: human capital and natural capital which has direct impact on poverty scenario of society. In terms of water use efficiency, India is far below the developed nations not only due to flood irrigation and over-watering, but also because of improper water conservation measures

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