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As
we all know that to live a better life we need neat and clean environment. Pollution
is the mixing of harmful substances into our atmosphere or it can be any
contamination in our environment. Pollution can be in any form like smoke,
dust, noise or toxic substances.

Types
of Pollution

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Mainly
there are four types of pollution –

1.      Air
Pollution – As we all know air is very essential for survival and it is getting
polluted in many ways. Air pollution occurs when harmful substances are mixed
in our environment. For example, if we talk about our daily life we use our car
or truck from home to work that produces smoke from exhaust pipe. We cannot
deny that half of the pollution is created by our vehicles.

2.      Soil
Pollution – Soil pollution occurs when toxic substances are dumped or used on
soil. It can be caused by waste disposal, fertilizers or by acid rain. For
example, we use fertilizers on crop to increase crop yield but on the other
hand it causes soil pollution. All these artificial inputs make soil infertile.

3.      Water
Pollution – As water is getting polluted day by day, a very small portion of
water is available for drinking. Water pollution occurs when harmful chemicals
are mixed into water. It can be caused by directly mixing chemicals into the
water bodies. For example, there are many industries that directly discharge
their chemical waste into lakes or rivers.

4.      Noise
Pollution – Noise pollution occurs when we get expose to high level of noise.
It can be caused by noise of heavy equipment’s or by our transportation.
Nowadays, the most serious problem of noise pollution is that youngsters like
to listen a very loud music in parties. 
For example, if we hear the sound level more than 70 decibel can
permanently lose our hearing power.

Effects

1.      Environmental
effects – Pollution affects the environment in several ways. Ozone layer is a
shelter from high UV rays but as chlorofluorocarbon gas is increasing day by
day in the atmosphere it causes ozone layer depletion. UV rays effect the
physiological and growth of the plant. Greenhouse effect is the major effect by
pollution. Greenhouse effect causes Global warming, climate change, rise in sea
level and many adverse effects on biodiversity. Carbon dioxide, water vapor and
methane are the main gasses of greenhouse. Soil is becoming infertile due to
use of pesticides and it also causes food poisoning. Chemicals from factories
are discharged to water bodies that kills aquatic animals like fish, crab etc.
Presence of toxic substance in water is getting unsuitable for crops. Due to
the high pitch of noise many birds migrate from one place to another. A
research shows many animal and bird species are disappeared and many are at the
edge of extinction.

2.      Health
effects – Ozone layer is a filter for high UV rays but due to depletion of
ozone layer these rays cause many skin diseases to humans as well as to animals.
The crops grown in polluted soil can cause diseases like fatigue and skin
problems. High level of noise can affect human by permanent loss of hearing.
Water pollution causes many diseases like cancer, this is due to the presence
of elements like lead or toxic substances in water. Breathing in polluted air
can cause many respiratory diseases like asthma, cough and cold.

Control

We
should follow three R’s formula, which states to Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. We
should decrease the use of fertilizers and pesticides on soil. To stop soil
pollution government should take strong steps for promoting organic farming and
educate farmers to decrease the use of fertilizers on crop. To stop air
pollution people should use of public transportation, share vehicles with
colleagues and friends. Harmful waste from industries should be treated before
discharging into waterbodies. Compost should be used at the place of
fertilizers. 

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