As the features of armed conflicts are shifting, effects of the conflict on children havecorrespondingly altered over the decades. Children are no longer the witnesses of conflicts, but they arebeing targeted intentionally. An estimated 300,000 children under the age of 18 are directly afflicted bywarfare and armed conflicts. Protecting children from the effects of armed conflict is an ethical necessity,a judicial liability and a question of international lawfulness and security. The Security Council hasresolved that protecting children from armed conflict is a crucial feature of any comprehensive approachto settle conflict, and should be a prime concern for the international community.During conflicts children encounter severe conditions and lethal situations. According to theInternational Bureau for Children’s Rights (IBCR), it is approximated that two million children have beenkilled in armed conflict, and over six million have been extremely injured or indelibly impaired.Additionally, millions of children have endured sexual assault, severe psychological distress,malnourishment, child trafficking and prostitution, as well as various grave diseases.Over the last decade, the United Nations Security Council has solemnly taken the issue ofensuring the safety of children affected by armed conflict into regard. Violations of children’s rights duringarmed conflicts have been brought to a wider awareness, and framework for monitoring profoundcontraventions have been promoted by the Security Council. A prominent accent is upon childprotection in order to build and maintain international peace and security.The Security Council identifies several aspects in which children are affected by armedconflict. In order to protect the children and sentence the offenders for the abuse of children, the SecurityCouncil sanctioned the establishment of the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM) investigatingsix serious violations against children:” killing or maiming of children; recruitment or use of children assoldiers; sexual violence against children; abduction of children; attacks against schools or hospitals;denial of humanitarian access.” The purpose of the MRM is to collect methodically and timely accurateinformation on the violations against children.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018| 9th-10th of February 2018Research Report | Page 2 of 10Definition of Key TermsMonitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM)The MRM was founded in 2005 by the Security Council as an unrivaled system to promoteaccountability and compliance with international law and child protection benchmarks. Over time,implementing the MRM has contributed actual results for children in some of the most problematic andmenacing areas in the world.Armed conflictArmed conflict is “a contested incompatibility which concerns government and/or territory wherethe use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results inat least 25 battle-related deaths” according to the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP).Geneva Declaration on the Rights of the ChildPublished in 1923, it is the first international treaty that was solely dedicated to the protection ofchildren written by the founder of the Save the Children Alliance, Eglantyne Jebb. In it, she raisedawareness of the children’s issues. Later in 1959, the UN recognized the declaration as a set ofguidelines for all countries.Convention on the Rights of the ChildBeing the most ratified human rights treaty in the world, it is a legal framework for the rights ofchildren. The treaty promotes equal rights for all children and protection of children during armed conflict.Presently, out of the 193 member states, 191 have ratified the convention, the only exclusions being theUnited States and Somalia.Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict (SCWG-CAAC)The working group, established in 2005 by the Security Council, reviews reports of themonitoring and reporting mechanism, as well as progress in the application of action plans. Also, itsuggests possible measures to promote the protection of children in armed conflict to the Council.European Union Guidelines on Children and Armed ConflictA set of guidelines adopted in 2003 by the European Union that aim to persuade governments andorganizations all around the world to apply humanitarian rights that protect children in the case of armedconflict by tackling the short-term and long-lasting effects of armed conflict on children.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018| 9th-10th of February 2018Research Report | Page 3 of 10The Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed ConflictA document adopted by the UN in 1974 that calls on states to ban attacks on the civilian population,prohibit the use of chemical and biological weapons, and follow the obligations set forth in the GenevaConventions.CivilianA person not in the armed forces or military.Background InformationWith the increasing of armed conflicts around the world, there are more and more children who aresubjected to intense war. War has planted the seeds of terror, unease, indecisiveness, and misery inthese children.On-going armed conflictsIn 2015, there was 50 different armed conflicts as stated by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program(UCDP), which is the maximum number ever reached since 1992. Over 97,000 people were executed asa direct result of armed conflicts in 2015. The number of people killed in conflict in 2014 and 2015 ishigher than any other time in the post-Cold War period. There are numerous ongoing armedconflicts that are taking place internationally and resume to result in violence to this day.Syrian civil warThe Syrian civil war is a continuous multi-faceted armed conflict in Syria fought mainly between thegovernment of President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and several forces defying thegovernment. The civil war erupted in 2011 and is still active today.Internal conflict in MyanmarThe internal conflict in Myanmar is a series of ongoing rebellions anduprisings within Myanmar that started directly after the country, used to be known as Burma,became independent in 1948 from the United Kingdom (UK). The conflict has been considered theworld’s longest running civil war.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018| 9th-10th of February 2018Research Report | Page 4 of 10Iraqi conflictThe Iraqi conflict is a long-running armed conflict that began with the 2003 invasion of Iraq bya United States-led military command that overthrew Saddam Hussein’s government. However, theconflict resumed as an uprising developed to resist and oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government.Kurdish-Turkish conflictThe Kurdish–Turkish conflict is an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey andvarious Kurdish insurgent groups, which have demanded separation from Turkey to create anindependent Kurdistan, or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside theRepublic of Turkey.Effect of armed conflict on childrenDuring conflicts children encounter severe conditions and lethal situations, both physically andphysiologically.Physical impactAccording to the World Health Organization (WHO), armed conflicts and political violence are themain reason for causing injuries and disabilities to children. The physical impact of armed conflict onchildren definitely involves malnourishment and generally poor wellbeing of the children, as well as anincrease in diseases. In armed conflict occasionally the food systems are corrupted as an unintendedprice of warfare, but they can also be damaged deliberately. Food can be used as a tool in war bystarving the population, armed forces are able to cause suffering to communities Children, especiallyyounger than the age of five, risk dying from grave starvation. In addition, with the spread of diseasesand unavailability of medical care that is also a great risk for children. The collapse of communal andhealth services is usual during the case of armed conflict.Physiological impactsArmed conflicts can have alarming effects on children during the conflicts, but also after theconflicts come to an end. The tangible and spiritual requirements of children are often not being reached.Armed conflict weakens the basis of children’s lives in many aspects. The conflict tears apart theircommunities and families. Children have a strong memory for violence, which can result in physiologicalharm such as depression, anxiety, suicide, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social isolation, andmuch more. Subjection to violence could have other lasting impacts as well: children couldDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018| 9th-10th of February 2018Research Report | Page 5 of 10get insensitive to violence and its outcomes meaning that children start to suppose that violence is anappropriate method to solve problems and that it is without consequence.Child soldiersIn the case of armed conflict, most child victims are usually civilians. However, in some cases whenchildren are underprivileged, deprived from their families, and don’t have access to education -or simplylive in a war zone- they are more likely to be forcefully recruited. But in the past 15 years or so, the useof children as soldiers has been very common in most armed conflicts around the world. Recently,thousands of children below the age of 16 have battled in conflicts in more than 24 distinct countries.Child soldiers have totaled as many as 200,000 in 1998.Major Countries and Organizations InvolvedUnited Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)UNICEF is a United Nations program that offers developmental and humanitarian assistance tochildren and mothers in countries that are developing. UNICEF aims to protect children in developingcountries whose lives are at risk, whether it be from poverty, malnourishment, disease, and mostimportantly armed conflict and war.AfghanistanThe Afghan War is one of the most destructive and damaging conflicts marked by history. Thenumber of child fatalities in Afghanistan confirmed by the UN has escalated by 14 percent since 2014and attained the highest amount ever documented. In 2015, for every four civilian mortalities, a childwould die. The United Nations have also gathered 11 different accounts of sexual abuse, affecting sixgirls and nine boys. Not to forget, attacks on schools and hospitals are extremely common. In addition,the number of substantiated cases of child recruitment and use of child soldiers increased more than50% compared with 2014. In total, 116 cases were documented (115 boys, one girl).World Health Organization (WHO)WHO, an organization specifically dedicated to international health, has also actively supportedchildren in armed conflict. In their most recent global partnership, “INSPIRE”, WHO pursues ending allkinds of violence against children-including armed conflicts- by identifying seven different strategies thathave shown an impact on reducing violence against children.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018| 9th-10th of February 2018Research Report | Page 6 of 10South SudanDispute continues throughout the country, with extreme conflicts between the Sudan People’sLiberation Army (SPLA) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army in Opposition (SPLM/A inOpposition) and their forces, mainly in Greater Upper Nile states. Although a peace treaty was ratified inAugust, but war continued, with mass killings of civilians and severe effects on children. Over a thousandincidents affecting approximately 29,000 children were reported, with 601 incidents in Unity State alone.Amnesty InternationalAmnesty International is a non-governmental organization that concentrates on human rights.Amnesty International has frequently recorded violations of global human rights and humanitarian law,including against children. This includes bombings on hospitals and schools, as well as the use ofuniversally illegal weapons which have killed and severely harmed children.Central African RepublicThere were relevant political changes in the Central African Republic in 2015, which caused anoutbreak of violence between different militia and terrorist groups such as the anti-balaka group. Thiscritically affected children. The UN reported 40 cases of child recruitment, 62 deaths, 185 severe injuries,70 incidents of sexual abuse, and 52 kidnaps.Save the ChildrenSave the Children Fund, a non-governmental organization, promotes the rights of children andoffers help to assist children in developing countries internationally. Save The Children hires roughly17,000 employees around the world and work in over 50 regions to aid children affected by calamities, orthose that need improved schooling, healthcare, and protection.Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)The security situation in DRC remains unstable due to the military operations by the ArmedForces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) against the Democratic Forces for theLiberation of Rwanda (FDLR) and other armed forces. The United Nations confirmed about 2,500violations against children, a notable increase from 2014. The FDLR was responsible for almost 40percent of these violations. Children saw military operations as a chance to escape from the armedareas, which resulted in the increase of separated children.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018| 9th-10th of February 2018Research Report | Page 7 of 10Timeline of EventsDate Description of event1948 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was embraced by the UN GeneralAssembly1959 Declaration of the Rights of the Child was published20 November, 1989 UN General Assembly implements the Convention of the Rights of the Child29 June,1998 First debate of the Security Council on children and armed conflict30 August 1999 First resolution specifically geared towards children and armed conflict ispublished (S/RES/1261)2001 The Security Council incorporated child protection advisors (CPA) in itspeacekeeping mandates12 February, 2002 Optional Protocol to the Convention of the Rights of the Child on theinvolvement of children in armed conflict has entered into forceJuly 2005Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict is introducedResolution 1612 that sanctions the monitoring and reporting mechanism, wasadoptedMarch 2014 Children not Soldiers campaign launchedRelevant UN Treaties and Events• General Assembly’s Resolution of the Rights of the Child, 20 February 1997 (A/RES/51/77)• Security Council Resolution 1261, 30 August 1999 (S/RES/1261)• Security Council Resolution 1314, 11 August 2000 (S/RES/1314)• Security Council Resolution 1379, 20 November 2001(S/RES/1379)• Security Council Resolution 1460, 30 January 2003 (S/RES/1460)• Security Council Resolution 1493, 28 July 2003 (S/RES/1493)• Security Council Resolution 1539, 22 April 2004 (S/RES/1539)• Security Council Resolution 1612, 26 July 2005 (S/RES/1612)• Security Council Resolution 1698, 31 July 2006 (S/RES/1698)• Security Council Resolution 1771, 10 August 2007 (S/RES/1771)• Security Council Resolution 1998, 12 July 2011(S/RES/1998)Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018| 9th-10th of February 2018Research Report | Page 8 of 10• Security Council Resolution 2068, 19 September 2012 (S/RES/2068)• Security Council Resolution 2143, 7 March 2014 (S/RES/2143)• Security Council Resolution 2225, 18 June 2015 (S/RES/2225)Previous Attempts to solve the IssueThere have been many previous attempts to solve this issue. Throughout the past 40 years,international law has improved and developed to better protect children affected by armed conflict. TheProtocols added to the Geneva Conventions that were ratified in 1977 made the military recruitment andusage of children under the age of 15 illegal, which is currently considered a war crime according to theRome Statute of the International Criminal Court (2002). It is applied on both governmental and non-state armed groups. The Convention on the Rights of the Child specified that any person under the ageof 18 was lawfully considered a child. Also, the ban of child recruitment under 15 in the military wasreasserted.In 2000, the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (OPAC) elevated thestandard on the contribution of children in armed conflict. It was the first international agreement that wasspecific to ending the misuse of children in armed conflict. This contract forbids recruitment of childrenvoluntarily by non-governmental parties, involvement of children in conflicts but permits governmentarmed forces to recruit from the age of 16, if the children are not sent to war. The majority of states havenow signed OPAC, which is (gradually) setting an in-effect prohibition on the manipulation of children incombat.Other global laws like Labor Organization’s Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention (1999) and TheAfrican Union’s Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (1999) ban obligatory recruitment forchildren under the age of 18.Possible SolutionsThe issue at hand has many severe effects on the children; whether it be long-term or temporary.Therefore, rehabilitation centers that aid children affected by armed conflict both physically and mentallyfunded by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and/or the World Bank. Also, emergency centers thatguarantee the protection of the jeopardized children should be created. The resolutions to tackle childrenin armed conflict are usually recapped by the abbreviation DDR: Disarmament, Demobilization, and Re-Integration. First of all, disarmament meaning removing the weapons from the child soldiers. Next,demobilization refers to disbanding and decommissioning the armed groups/forces to make the childrenfeel less threatened and also to prevent the upsurge of child soldiers. Finally, re-integration alludes tomoving these children back into civil communities.