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Appendix 1

 

Table 1: Effect of High-fat diet immediately
before exercise protocols in well-trained individuals.

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Subject
Characteristics

Fat
Adaptation Protocol

Performance
Protocol

Performance
Outcome

Okano et al., (1996)
 
Endurance trained males
(n=10)

Single
meal given 4h pre-exercise
 
High-CHO
meal: 4669kj; 79% CHO, 10%Fat and 11% Protein
 
Vs
 
High
fat meal: 4711 kj; 30% CHO, 61% Fat and 9% Protein

Cycling
 
65%
of VO2max for first 120 min of exercise, followed by an increase of 80%

No significant difference in heart rate, O2
consumption and perceived exertion.
 
Significantly higher respiratory exchange ratio
in High-CHO group and significantly higher serum insulin at start of
exercise.
 

Whitley et al., (1998)
 
Well trained cyclists
(n=8)
 

4 hours pre-meal
 
High-CHO meal: 215g CHO, 26g Protein, 3g Fat
 
Vs
 
High-fat meal: 50g CHO, 14g Protein, 80g Fat

Cycling

 
90
min at 70% of VO2max, followed by a 10-km time trial.
 

Significant
decreases in high-CHO diet group for blood glucose, plasma nonesterified
fatty acids, plasma glycerol, plasma chylomicron-triacylglycerol, and plasma
3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations during exercise.
 
Increases
in plasma insulin, plasma epinephrine, and plasma growth hormone
concentrations during exercise.
 
No
differences in substrate oxidation during the exercise
 
No
improvements in performance on the time trial.

Appendix 2

 

Table 2: Effects
of a High-fat, Low-CHO diet for up to 3 days

 

Subject
Characteristics

Fat
Adaptation Protocol

Performance
Protocol

Performance
Outcome

Lima-Silva et
al., (2013)
 
Healthy
physically active male volunteers
 
(n=6)

48hours
 
High-CHO
diet: 70% CHO
Vs
Low-CHO
diet: 25% CHO

Cycling

 
115%
VO2max to exhaustion

Reduced time to exhaustion
and a lower total aerobic energy contribution in low-CHO diet.
 
 

Starling et al., (1985)
 
Endurance trained men
 
(n=7)

1 day –
Overnight fast and no ingestion of CHO during exercise
 
High-CHO:
83% of energy
Vs
High-fat:
68% of energy

Cycling
 
TT
of 1600kj
120-min
cycling at 65% of VO2max. 
 
 
 
 

TT
performance impaired by 16% in high-fat group.

Pitsiladis and Maughan (1999)
 
Well-trained cyclists
 
(n=6)

3
days
 
High-fat:
Fat 65% of energy, CHO 9% of energy.
Vs
Control
group: CHO 82%
 

Cycling
 
Four
cycling protocols to exhaustion at 70% of VO2max in two different
temperatures (10°C and 30°C)
 
 

 
Time to fatigue
reduced by 44% for fat trial (10°C)
Time to fatigue
reduced by 17% on fat trial (30°C)
 

 

Appendix 3

 

Table 3:
High-fat, low-CHO diet for >5days in well trained individuals

Subject
Characteristics

Fat
Adaptation Protocol

Performance
Protocol

Performance
Outcome

Phinney et al.,
(1983)
 
Well-trained
cyclists
 
(n=5)

 
High-fat, low-CHO: 70% Fat, CHO 20g per day.

Cycling
 
Ride to exhaustion
(~65% of VO2max)
 

No significant
difference and impairment in exercise capacity post high-fat diet

Lambert et al.,
(1994)
 
Trained cyclists
 
(n=5)

2 weeks
 
High-fat: 70%
fat, 7% CHO
Vs
High CHO: 74%
CHO, 12% fat
 

Cycling
 
Wingate
test of muscle power
Cycle to
exhaustion –
85% of
peak power output
(90% VO2max)
and 50%
of peak power output (60% VO2max)

No significant difference in time
to exhaustion and muscle glycogen utilisation
Starting muscle glycogen levels
were lower during high-fat diet.
 

Goedecke et al.,
(1999)
 
Endurance trained
cyclists
 
(n=16)

15 days
 
High-CHO: 30% +/- 8%mj fat
 
Vs
 
High-fat: 69% +/- 1% mJ fat
 

Cycling
2.5-hour
constant-load ride at 70% VO2peak followed by a simulated 40-km cycling TT

Increased rates of fat oxidation after 5
days of high fat diet.
 
No significant difference in performance.
 

 
 
Burke et al.,
(2012)
 
World
class-endurance athletes
 
(n= see fat
adaptation protocol)

 
 
3 weeks
3 isoenergetic diets:
1)   
High-CHO: (8.6 CHO, 2.1 protein, 1.2 fat) consumed before,
during and after training
(n = 9)
 
2)   
Periodise-CHO (PCHO):
Alternating
between low and high CHO  
(n = 10)
 
3)   
Low-CHO, High-Fat (LCHF):
< 50 g day CHO; 78% energy as fat; 2.1 g kg protein. (n = 10)       Race walking Resistance training Cross training.     Increased rate of whole-body fat oxidation seen in LCHF group.   Despite improvements in peak aerobic capacity, performance was impaired in LCHF group.     Paoli et al., (2012)   Athletes, Elite artistic gymnasts   (n=8) 30 days   Ketogenic diet (KD): 54.8% fat, 40.7%protein, 4.5% CHO.   Vs   Western Diet: 38.5% Lipids, 14.7% Protein, 46.8% CHO     Multitude of strength exercises No significant differences in performance. Cochran et al., (2015)   Active but not highly trained   (n=18) 2 weeks   HI-LO: 1L artificially sweetened water. Snack bar: 100kcal, 17g CHO, 1g Protein, 3g total fat.   HI-HI: 1L drink - 157g of CHO. Snack bar: 250kcal, 38g CHO, 15g Protein, 5g Fat.     6 days over 2 weeks x 2 training sessons 5 × 4-min cycling intervals - 60% of peak power. During the 3-hr period between, participants ingested either: HI-HI: 195 g of CHO HI-LO: 17 g of CHO Improved performance in HI-LO group.   Hulston et al., (2010)   Well-trained individuals   (n=14) 3 weeks   67.5% CHO, 13.5% protein and 19% fat. 9 High-intensity training sessions consisting of 5-min efforts, 1-min recovery for 90 mins at  70% V ?O2max   Fat oxidation increased post training. No improvement in performance Rhyu and Cho., (2014)   Taekwondo athletes   (n=20) 3 weeks   Ketogenic diet: CHO 22g (40.7%), Lipids 55%, Protein 4.3%   Non-Ketogenic diet: CHO 30%, Lipids 30%, Protein 40%     1 hour low intensity exercise during early hours 2-hour of morning of strength training 2-hours Taekwondo training in evening   No improvement in performance                       Appendix 4   Table 4: Effects of a High-fat, low-CHO diet in combined with CHO restoration   Subject Characteristics Fat Adaptation Protocol Performance Protocol Performance Outcome Havemann et al, (2006)   Well-trained cyclists   (n=8) 6 days High-Fat diet: 68% energy from fat followed by 1 day of CHO loading (90% energy from CHO) Vs CHO diet: 68% energy from CHO followed by 1 day of CHO loading (90% energy from CHO).   100-km TT with sprints:   4-km sprints (78–84 % peak power output) 1-km sprints (90 % peak power output) Performance 2.5% faster in high-CHO group Impaired performance evident in LCHF group during 1km sprint   Burke et al., (2000)   Well trained cyclists   (n=8) High-CHO diet: 9.6gkg CHO, 0.7gkg fat. Vs An isoenergetic high-fat diet: 2.4gkg CHO, 4 gkg fat. Cycling   2 h cycling at 70% VO2max + 7 kJ/kg TT Muscle glycogen levels restored to above baseline after 1 day of rest and CHO loading Significant reduction in muscle glycogen utilisation (~100mmol/kg dry weight) when compared with a high-CHO diet. Carey et al. (2001)   Competitive athletes (n=7)   High-CHO: 11g.kg CHO, 1g x kg Fat Vs An Isoenergetic high-fat diet: 2.6gxkg CHO, 4.6g xkg Fat Cycling 4-hour cycle at 65% peak O2 uptake, followed by a 1-h time trial (TT).   Increased fat oxidation post submaximal exercise.   No statistical significant improvement in performance      

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