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The work of Leyre &
Yolanda (20012) focused on the ways that Japanese and English native speakers
render apologies. The data used in the research was gotten from a total of 46
participants: the participants were asked to complete a DTC (discourse completion
task) which was written in both English and Japanese. The result shows that the
Native speakers of Japanese (NSJ) acceptance of responsibility when rendering
an apology isn’t as frequent as that of the Native speakers of English (NSE).  

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Hunter & Jee-Won
(2010) also stated in their work that In the Western world, an expression like”
cenum hal mali epssupnita” meaning  ‘I
have nothing to say’ is mostly the reverse of an apology, and simply says that
the person does not take responsibility for his actions and refuse to say
anything. On the other hand,  it is
common for Koreans to use that expression which shows that words are not enough
to articulate the profundity and intensity of regret they feel.  This expression is also similar to sets of
apologies that specify lacking a body, lacking of face, or a death wish.

Attention Getters
for Greetings, Apologies, and Requests

Xinran (2009) in his
study of 75 participants (25 English speakers, 25 Russians, and 25 Japanese
speakers) made use of a questionnaire that had 14 everyday situations in an
academic environment to prove that attention getters are common with the
English people, and often taken place or cropped up mostly as either apologies
or greetings, and even though they both maintain their direct illocutionary
force, their most important functions in any request would appear to draw the
attention of the addressee. In greetings, the speaker starts by greeting the
addressee with “hello, hi, or hey”.  It
is also common to hear an “I am sorry or excuse me” when and English person
wants to request for something, it is used as an attention getter, and is
different from the apology.  

The attention getters
that the Japanese use are different from that of the English people. They use “?? “which means ‘please
may I ask’, which is a phrase that is commonly made use of prior to
requesting r information from a stranger. They also use expressions of bother which
typically indicates the awkwardness and shame of the speaker for the bother
that s/he is giving the addressee.


Mei & Yingying (2015) in their
research on “pragmatic study of Chinese and Western linguistic politeness”
stated that it
is a taboo to just talk about death or plainly mention a’mental illness’ or any
other deadly disease to a patient. The Westerners have got other names they
consider ‘polite’ which they use in place of the names for deadly ailments.
Some of them are ‘the big C which is used for cancer, visually retarded which
is used to refer to the blind, hard of hearing which is used to refer to the
deaf, and so many others. The Chinese and English people are similar when it
comes to this because of the existence of “human feelings” which leads to
horror when a deadly illness or death is mentioned. 

Greeting and Address

Linqui (2016) in her
study of greetings in both Chinese and English people which included 80 native
speakers of English and 100 Chinese speakers who had to answer 6 major
questions, stated in her findings that in English, greetings like “how are you,
good morning, or hi “are very common ways to greet, whereas in China, “where
are you going, and have you eaten” are common.  She went further to say that the Chinese tend
to be more personal in their greetings than the English people.

The Chinese people are
seen to have a much more complex way of addressing than in English. The Chinese
address people mainly based on their profession and social status, whereas
English people make use of first names more, and could easily be used to
address both parents and superiors, but the Chinese can never do that. However,
the use of last names and full names are more used by the Chinese. She went
further to say that the reason for this difference is because the Chinese are
more of collectivism than individualism, meaning that they prioritise the goal
of group to their personal goals. 

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