***ANYTHING YOU DON’T LIKE THE SOUND OF PUT IN RED AND WILL REVISIT IT DURING EDITING*** ***ANYTHING IN BOLD IS NOT NARRATED IN DOCUMENTARY***Introduction:The world seemed in chaos. Tensions were rising -pause-For 124 years, France ruled over Algeria. Their oppressive control had previously been an issue but in the early hours of November 1st, 1954, the conflict would return. (NOT SPOKEN) How War Tactics Turned Civilians into Freedom Fighters:The French-Algerian WarAlgeria, about four times larger than France is located in Northern Africa, with the northern border along the Mediterranean Sea. Roughly 400 miles away is France, one of the major world powers. After nearly a century and a half of French rule, Algeria was ready for a change. A revolution. How did the use of torture and the counterinsurgency during the French-Algerian War help to create the current day conflict in Algeria?FLN Introduction/War Background:The conquest of Algeria lasted from 1830-1847 under the rule of two different French Kings. After decades of French rule, groups in Algeria came together to fight for their independence. At the time, the president of France, Rene Coty, appealed his presidency to Charles de Gaulle. De Gaulle was known to be a strong leader and more fit to lead his country through a war. At the forefront, nationalist leaders Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Larbi Ben M’hidi, Rabah Bitat, Mohamed Boudiaf and Mourad Didouche, formed the FLN, the National Liberation Front. They were joined by others such as Ahmed Ben Bella in the months to follow. By the middle of 1956, nearly all the Algerian nationalist organizations had joined the FLN. Due to their growing support, it was eventually reorganized so that it resembled a provisional government.”Algerian muslims took to the hills under the banner of a new organization, the FLN. They launched attacks on the french. French patrols in the back country were ambushed.” The attacks on November 1, 1954 were named the Toussaint (tousson) Rouge. The FLN would proceed to carry out 30 individual attacks on police and military personnel across French Algeria resulting in seven casualties. This revolt marked the beginning of the French-Algerian war. The reaction in France was swift, and over the next two days, hundreds of French troops began to arrive in Algeria in what many refer to as the start of the French Algerian war. “At the peak of its strength, in 1958 the FLN fielded an army of approximately 20,000 men. It ruled the Horace mountains. And it enforced its decisions.”Intro to CI:Throughout the war, the French began to make mistakes that were crucial to the war effort. The mistakes not only affected the French people, but other people around the world. France would go on to use a strict set of counterinsurgency operations against members of the FLN. The French combination of civilian and military efforts to restrain the rebellion and address its root causes was the theory that allowed the French to continue the fight for so long. CI:Counterinsurgency was the main tactic used during the war. The ideas of false flags and bricking were two of the most commonly carried out. The French saw these options as an effective way of getting things done. The plan was to split Algeria into different sectors with a different unit stationed in each sector; each responsible for defeating the rebels in their respective areas. Certain zones were harder than others leading the French to remove Algerian citizens from their towns and homes and place them in flatland areas where it would be easy to keep a close watch. It was in these new areas that Algerians would realize that there were transformations occuring in their own country. France was capturing them and holding them against their will in new places, ultimately destroying the Algerian economy, ruining businesses and tearing apart the typical lifestyle. More often than not, FLN members in hiding would lie low in cavse where it was hard to find them. The French however had a tactic so inhumane it is hard to imagine it could be accepted by Military troops would simply brick the entrance and exit to a cave, leaving all those inside stuck to suffocate with no escape and no air flow. The use of false flagging was an entirely separate gambit carrying out attacks posing as another country and planting that countries flag. This gave bystanders the belief that uninvolved countries were carrying out these horrible attacks even though it was the French. While tensions rose in Algeria, the people back home in France had no idea what was going on. The French government was reluctant to share any information leading the French citizens to believe the military was in Algeria for peacekeeping and that everything was under control. The French government consistently lied to the people to make sure nobody discovered their methods. What did the French government have to fear? They feared their own citizens turning against them in the wake of their actions.Galula:One of the major names in developing the theory and practice of counterinsurgency is David Galula, a French military officer born into a Jewish family in Tunisia. It was not until 1941 when he was expelled from the military in accordance with the Statute on Jews, a set of Anti-Jew laws with the main focus being to deprive the Jews of their status and citizenship. In 1956, 15 years later, David Galula, now a captain in the French military would lead his troops to successfully eliminate the insurgency in his sector. He would then earn a promotion and move to the Headquarters of National Defense in Paris where he would help spread his ideas of counterinsurgency Galula believes that:”A victory in a counterinsurgency is not the destruction in a given area of the insurgent’s forces and his political organization. … A victory is that plus the permanent isolation of the insurgent from the population, isolation not enforced upon the population, but maintained by and with the population. … In conventional warfare, strength is assessed according to military or other tangible criteria, such as the number of divisions, the position they hold, the industrial resources, etc. In revolutionary warfare, strength must be assessed by the extent of support from the population as measured in terms of political organization at the grass roots. The counterinsurgent reaches a position of strength when his power is embedded in a political organization issuing from, and firmly supported by, the population.”Torture:Both sides had different styles of warfare. The FLN preferred to use guerilla attacks and bombings at night while the french used torture as an effective means of gaining information. Although used by both sides, French torture was gruesome, commonly employing methods like waterboarding, electric shocks, and injections of experimental doses of penthonal. The merciless “treatment” dehumanized victims and permanently scar them mentally and physically. Unexpected by the French, it turned them into a army “…they picked up the plank to which I was still attached and carried me into the kitchen. … fixed a rubber tube to the metal tap which shone just above my face. He wrapped my head in a rag… When everything was ready, he said to me: ‘When you want to talk, all you have to do is move your fingers.’ And he turned on the tap. The rag was soaked rapidly. Water flowed everywhere: in my mouth, in my nose, all over my face. But for a while I could still breathe in some small gulps of air. I tried, by contracting my throat, to take in as little water as possible and to resist suffocation by keeping air in my lungs for as long as I could. But I couldn’t hold on for more than a few moments. I had the impression of drowning, and a terrible agony, that of death itself, took possession of me. In spite of myself, all the muscles of my body struggled uselessly to save me from suffocation. In spite of myself, the fingers of both my hands shook uncontrollably. ‘That’s it! He’s going to talk,’ said a voice.”-Henri Alleg, torture victimThrough all of this pain, Alleg did not betray the FLN and was later freed due to his resilience. “The majority of the tortured say nothing because they have nothing to say unless, to avoid torture, they agree to bear false witness or confess to a crime they have not committed.” -Jean-Paul Sartre, French philosopher. The possibility of victims giving false information regarding the war was only the beginning of France’s problems with torture in the war. Once it was known that, the French introduced torture into the war that outside organizations took interest in joining the Algerians in their fight. In fact, the use of torture is the most impactful reason France would lose the war. Their tactic turned a group of resistance believers into warriors determined to destroy the French military for their immoral actions. This “army” was one of many strong forces that joined the fight. The news of torture was able to feed the gathering storm of anti-colonial and anti-torture activists and authors that changed the public’s opinion of France’s involvement in Algeria. But the protest for torture did not stop on the borders of Algeria, it spread onto French soil, and led them to the brink of civil war. As word spread across the mediterranean, the French people began to question the importance of the war in Algeria, the deaths of hundreds of thousands of French soldiers only angered more Frenchmen, and gave more reason for the war to end in the French people’s eye. Tactics Conclusion:Although counterinsurgency tactics were successful, they never were enough to stop the FLN from fighting. The negative reaction of the French citizens to the torture only fueled the counteractive view of the war. In April, 1962, negotiations opened once again, this time in secret as a way to prevent more backlash. France and the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic voted in favor of the Evian Accords, that granted Algeria its freedom. On July 1, 1962, the Evian accords were approved and signed, granting Algeria its independence. This also stated that French aid would continue and Europeans currently stationed in Algeria could leave, stay, or take Algerian citizenship. Benbella and de Gaulle:End w/ Benbella: Current Events:Possible end quotes:It is not tolerable, it is not possible, that from so much death, so much sacrifice and ruin, so much heroism, a greater and better humanity shall not emerge. Charles De Gaulle Storage:One of the major names in developing the theory and practice of counterinsurgency is David Galula, a French military officer born into a Jewish family in Tunisia. It was not until 1941 when he was expelled from the military in accordance with the Statute on Jews, a set of Anti-Jew laws with the main focus being to deprive the Jews of their status and citizenship.