Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign expansile osteolytic tumor-like lesions that are characterized by multiple blood-filled cavities. It can affect any bone in body, but most commonly in long bones especially in the eccentric metaphysis. The clinical presentation is mainly pain, swelling, as well as deformity due its ability to expand which may lead to pathological fracture, and restriction of movement. It may also cause neurologic symptoms (location dependent). The exact etiology of ABC is unknown. However, most researchers believe that it is due to increased venous pressure or malformation. ABC could be primary, or secondary to another underlying lesion like osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, …etc. Recent study have found that 69% of primary ABC are due to t(16;17) translocation which leads to upregulation TRE17/USP6 oncogene. However, secondary ABCs do not explain genetic changes. Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare, and most cases are in the pediatric group. It can be treated by curettage and bone grafting with approximately 20%-25% recurrence rate. A minimally invasive therapy is also performed percutaneously (sclerotherapy).
Percutenous sclerotherapy is done by an interventional radiologist, and the procedural method is completed by injecting a sclerosing agent (sodium tetradecyl sulfate, doxycycline, ethibloc, …etc) into the lesion under radiological guidance. Many recent studies have shown that sclerotherapy is a good and minimally invasive alternative method when it comes to treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts, most of which have shown excellent with very few unsuccessful rates. Interestingly, there are no local studies about treatments of ABC by sclerotherapy. Hence, our plan to asses and see the results of all patients with aneurysmal bone cysts who underwent sclerotherapy at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) to evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure in our facility. We are going to asses the efficiency of this procedure by looking at the age of onset, sex, location of the cyst and its size, fibrosing solution, duration of healing, and most importantly, the outcome, as well as other related data. Lastly, the importance of this study is to provide maximum care for upcoming aneurysmal bone cyst cases presented in our medical city.