An IoT Based Smart Weather Monitoring System
Maulik A. Patel
Department of Computer Engineering
Gujarat Power Engineering and Research Institute
Mehsana, Gujarat, India
Abstract – The system proposed in this paper presents the real-time weather monitoring by considering various parameters of an environment and accordingly it predict and alert people about various environment condition. The technology behind this system is the Internet of Thing (IoT). We have used Raspberry Pi single board computer and Linux based Raspbian OS. This system collects the information like temperature and humidity with the help of various sensors. The sensors are connected to the Raspberry Pi using GPIO pins. All the information will be passed to web service running on Raspberry Pi. As we know that IoT is all about everything connected through the internet, here Raspberry Pi is enabled with the internet. So, Information collected by a web-server is also available on the internet and it can be accessible to a client via HTTP protocol from anywhere in the world.
Keywords: Weather monitoring, Wireless network, Sensors, Raspberry Pi, ARM, GPIO, SPI, I2C, IoT, HTTP.
There are many factors that affect the weather and weather affect many leaving as well as non-leaving things on the earth. Monitoring and analysis of various environmental parameters have been done using some equipment by weather monitoring station. Results of analysis have been shared with people via news, radio, TV channels, etc. Apart from these traditional ways, we have developed smart weather monitoring system which makes this traditional system automatic. To provide a low-cost solution, we have designed IoT based, real-time, portable and smart weather monitoring station using Raspberry Pi.
Recent trends of innovations in technology are moving towards automation of existing systems, controlling and monitoring the systems through the internet from anywhere using IoT. IoT means Internet of Things. It provides inter-networking of physical devices, buildings, vehicles and other components like sensors and actuators 1. Using IoT, all objects like electronic circuits, sensors, actuators, and electronics equipment are able to connect to the internet and exchange the data. IoT provides facility to connect the physical world with the computer-based systems. IoT framework helps things to interact with each other.
The weather monitoring system is very important in many aspects. There are many industries and humans use information related to weather on daily bases and accordingly they can plan their work. It’s a need of time to provide real-time weather data to clients. To sever this purpose, we have used IoT technology. The system consists of temperature and humidity sensor connected with the Raspberry Pi and Pi connected with internet. Web server available with Raspberry Pi collect the temperature and humidity data and do an analysis of the data. There should be appropriate threshold value defined for each area the system has been deployed. If these parameters reached a threshold or beyond this value then system take predefined necessary action.
II. Existing system
There are many kinds of weather and pollution monitoring system available by considering various environmental parameter in today’s world. Figure 1 represents the existing system available for weather monitoring. It shows that weather monitoring system is connected to the satellite for information collection. A satellite has various sensors for sensing a various parameter of an environment. Once sensors sense the environment, it generates appropriate values with respect to weather condition and provides to satellite. Satellite transfers the data to weather monitoring system through a wireless channel.
Figure 1: Existing system
When weather monitoring system received data from satellite, it stores raw data into a database available with it and then does various analysis based on different applications. Final results generated after analysis shall be passed to appropriate main or sub monitoring systems. The main or sub monitoring system share this information to appropriate users via different ways like newspaper, TV, Radio etc.
There are many systems proposed for the functional design and implementation of WSN platform useful in IoT based environmental monitoring 2. Some IoT based weather monitoring system is also designed for environmental condition monitoring in homes 3. There are many other IoT based weather monitoring system available. But all these existing systems are providing the row information generated by the sensor through a web-based platform.
III. Proposed System
The proposed weather monitoring system connects temperature and humidity sensor (DHT11) with Raspberry Pi, a single board computer. The main reason behind the choosing the Raspberry Pi is easy hardware interfacing and to provide a low-cost solution. Following components are used to implement this system.
1. Raspberry Pi: It is single board computer with single core 32-bit ARM 11 processor. The series of small single board computer developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. There are many variants of Raspberry Pi available in the market with different configurations. It contains USB ports, Ethernet Port, WiFi, HDMI, MicroSD card slot, DSI display port, GPIO pins. In our system, we have used Raspberry Pi 3 Model B. Using Wi-Fi, Ethernet or USB port, we can easily connect it with internet and share the information on the internet. Environment monitoring sensors are interfaced with Raspberry Pi board using general purpose input output (GPIO). Figure 2 shows the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B.
Figure 2: Raspberry Pi 3 Model B
2. Temperature and Humidity sensor: DHT sensor is used in our system for monitoring temperature and humidity. DHT11 and DHT12 are used to do some basic data logging. The DHT sensor has two parts, a thermistor, and a capacitive humidity sensor. The DHT11 sensor is used for our system to monitor temperature and humidity parameters of the environment. Figure 3 shows DHT11 sensor used in our system.
Figure 3: DHT11 sensor
The sensor is considered reliable and stable due to the exclusive digital signal and data realization based Temperature / Humidity sensing module. DHT sensor is constructed of resistive type element that reads Humidity and negative temperature coefficient NTC element that reads the temperature. 4
Here are the specifications of DHT11:
Ø Power: 3 or 5V.
Ø Current: 2.5mA.
Ø Effective Humidity readings: 20-80% (5% accuracy).
Ø Effective Temperature readings: 0-50°C (±2°C accuracy).
Ø Sampling rate: 1 Hz Max (per second).
Ø Size: 15.5mm x 12mm x 5.5mm.
Ø Pins: 4.
Humidity sensor works on the principle of relative humidity and gives the output in the form of voltage 5. Weather monitoring system in this paper is designed based on the Raspberry Pi and DHT11 sensor. The DHT11 sensor is attached to Raspberry Pi on GPIO pins.
The employed Temperature / Humidity sensor (DHT) have 3 pins identified as VCC connected to the 5V, GND connected to Raspberry Pi GND pin, and DATA pin connected to the digital BCM GPIO04 pin of Raspberry Pi board. The connection of DHT11 and Raspberry Pi is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4: DHT11 interfacing with Raspberry Pi.
The proposed system is used for temperature and humidity monitoring from the environment as a part of weather monitoring system. The proposed system consists of three tiers. The first tier of the system includes environment parameter and related sensors. The DHT11 sensor is used to sense the temperature and humidity of the environment. The second tier describes the data acquisition from sensor devices. It includes the computing device which collects data and does an analysis of data. Raspberry Pi is considered as a heart of whole weather monitoring system. Raspberry pi collects the information from DHT11 and does necessary computation on collected data. Once computations are over, the role of tier three comes into the picture. The proposed system architecture is shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5: Proposed model architecture
The third tier includes the decision making and smart environment monitoring. It means that system observes the variation in change of results generated by sensors. Based on the observation it will take an appropriate decision if there is a variation in sensor data and a predefined threshold value. Threshold value depends on an identified value of temperature and humidity level on a specific area. The system flowchart is represented in Figure 6.
Figure 6: Flowchart of smart algorithm
IV. Software Implementation and Result
Software implementation plays an important role in the development of IoT based system. The Raspbian operating system has installed in Raspberry Pi for development of the system. It is Debian Linux based official supported operating system by Raspberry Pi foundation. Python programming language is used to read a sensor from Raspberry Pi. IDLE (Integrated Development and Learning Environment) is the special text editor software used for programming in python 1.
Web service displays a graphical representation of analytical results of sensor’s reading. Figure 7 shows the graphical representation of Temperature sensor. The results shown in a graph represents the temperature sensor reading at Mehsana, Gujarat, India. If sensors readings are above the predefined upper threshold value or below the predefined lower threshold value then It gives notification to clients by red marks. The average temperature of Mehsana city falls between 40 to 20 °C throughout a year. If the temperature reading is high than 40 °C and low than 20 °C then that reading is marked with a red color.
Figure 7: Temperature sensor analytics
Figure 7: Humidity sensor analytics
Figure 8 shows the graphical representation of Humidity sensor. It shows the graphical representation of average humidity recorded by the DHT11 sensor from April to November 2017 of Mehsana, Gujarat, India. Web application shows this graph which highlights the humidity value greater than 75% and lower than 20%.
The weather monitoring system is recording the temperature and humidity sensors reading by every 1 hour. The graph shows average result analysis using smart weather monitoring algorithm. These graphs have shared with a client using web service running on Raspberry Pi. Clients can access these analytical results through web service from anywhere in the world.
It is a need of time to monitor real-time environmental parameters like temperature and humidity. This system provides a smart solution to a client using IoT. It can monitor, analyze and display a temperature and humidity on the real-time basis. It provides a very low-cost solution to a client by using Raspberry Pi device.
There are few limitations of this system like it having limited sensors. More sensors can be attached to expand the system. It gives notification to a client by red mark. Buzzer or siren can be used for notification. Mobile phone application can be designed for the client to read the analytical results of sensor’s reading. We can also add the facility of automation in this system, for example, if the temperature is above the upper threshold value then it starts air conditioner(AC) in homes or buildings of that area. If it is below the lower threshold value then it starts heater in homes or buildings that area. If humidity increase or decrease than a threshold value then it changes a mode of AC to maintain humidity in homes or buildings that area.
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