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an AS, information in a routing table is the same for all routers.
RIPv1, RIPv2, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF and IS–IS, all fall under IGP. Exterior gateway
protocols on the other hand are used to enable different autonomous systems to
communicate. An example of exterior gateway protocol is the border gateway
protocol (BGP).

Interior gateway protocols differ in routing behavior and are further
classified into

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Distance Vector Protocols, Link State Protocols and Hybrid Protocols
(Kaur et al, 2014). Distance vector protocols determine best paths to a remote
network on the basis of distance.

Whenever a router forwards packets to another router, it is termed as a
hop. The path that has the least number of hops to reach the remote network is
taken as the best path. The vector points to the direction to reach the remote
network. RIPv1, RIPv2, and IGRP all fall under distance vector protocols. Link
state protocols operate on a different principle. They create three different
tables which they use in their routing process. The first table is used to
store all networks directly connected to the routers. The second table is used
to store the map of the complete internetwork. The third table is the routing
table which is used to store the shortest path to reach all remote networks in
the entire internetwork. The main distinction between these two routing
algorithms is that in distance vector routing, the entire routing table content
is exchanged between routers that are directly connected to each other whereas
in link state routing, routers only share routing updates which contains the
state of their own links with other routers in the network. OSPF and IS–IS are
typical link state protocols. Hybrid

protocols combine some routing characteristics of distance vector
protocols and link state protocols. An example of hybrid protocol is EIGRP
(Lammle, 2007).

The focus of this thesis is on two IGPs for IPv6. These are OSPFv3 and
IS–IS. Both

protocols are modified versions of OSPF and IS–IS supported in IPv4 and
have been chosen for performance evaluation for routing some of the most
frequently used applications in IPv6 networks.

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