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All batch experiments were carried out in glass vessels using
magnetic stirring at 200 rpm. The suspension containing 0.01 g of adsorbent
samples (GO, CS/GO, CS, PPC/GO)  in a 50
ml conical flasks with 30 ml of different concentration P4R aqueous solutions,
was adjusted at appropriate pH. The concentration of ponceau 4R was determined
spectrophotometrically at 507 nm. The sorption amount of P4R, qt was
calculated using mass balance equation, eq (1)

Where qt is the sorption capacity of  P4R per unit weight of  nanocomposite at any time  t 
mg/g, Co and Ct are initial and concentration of
P4R at time t (mgL-1) respectively, calculated from absorbance value
recorded by UV-Vis spectrophotometer by the aid of calibration curve, W is the
weight of adsorbents in (g) and V is the volume of P4R solution in (liter) 26. The effect of contact time on the removal efficiency of ponceau
4R dye by GO, CS, CS/GO and PPC/GO nanocomposite was evaluated in a time period
of 210 min. To explore kinetics characteristics of adsorption, 0.01g of PPC/GO
nanocomposite sample was placed in 50 ml flask, containing 30 ml of P4R
solution (2.88 ppm) at pH=7, 27 oC. The suspension was agitated at
200 rpm at different time intervals within the range (2-210min), after which
the supernatant P4R dye concentration was calculated using UV-Vis
spectrophotometer. The isotherm studies were done by contacting 0.01g of PPC/GO
nanocomposite, with 30 ml of P4R at different initial concentration (2.4, 2.88,
3.36, 3.84, 4.32) ppm and stirred till complete adsorption. The experiments
were performed at different temperatures (303K, 308K, 313K, 318K). Sorption
isotherms are plots of the equilibrium adsorption capacity (qt)
versus time to examine the remained P4R in the solution with different
conditions. To study the pH dependency of dye adsorption onto 0.01 g PPC/GO,
the experiment was done in 30 ml ponceau 4R solutions with initial
concentration (2.88 ppm) at pH different values (2,4,6,8,10,12) at 27oC,
the buffer solution was Prepared using mixture of 250 ml (0.062N) of potassium
dihydrogen phosphate and  250 ml of
dipotassium hydrogen phosphate salts27, then the pH value was adjusted by hydrochloric acid and sodium
hydroxide.

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