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Alexis Chomyn Period 31.     What enabled Europeans to carve out huge empires an ocean away from their homelands? Europeans were able to carve out huge empires because they were much closer to the americas than the exploration fleet sent from asia. Europe was exploring to expand and build whereas asia was exploring to spread culture and influence.  After 1200, Europeans were looking to join the eurasian commerce. Competing monarchs, merchants, and christian missionaries had different motives for building empires. Trading companies allowed for effective travel for people and resources.  2.     What large-scale transformations did European empires generate? As the European empires were built, There was a decrease in native american societies. But, There were new societies of both african and european peoples. Trade between european countries and the americas caused large transformation between the animals and plants raised in those areas. The silver mines in mexico supply fuel for transpacific/atlantic trade. Africa Europe and america created a strong bond because of the need for  plantation workers and cotton and sugar trade. 3.     What was the economic foundation of colonial rule in Mexico and Peru? How did it shape the kinds of societies that arose there? Mexico and peru’s economic foundation of colonial rule was silver mines as well as commercialized agriculture. This created a social order similar to the spanish class hierarchy. They were accepting of diversity.  They accommodated racially and culturally different Africans and indians. 4.     How did the plantation societies of Brazil and the Caribbean differ from those of southern colonies in British North America? In north America, Slavery was not as extreme.  Unlike in north america brazil’s  slave owners would set their slaves free. North America held less racial mixing, and slaves  became “self-reproducing”. In about 1850, most slaves in north america had been born in the new world. Slaves in north america were established very differently than in brazil. In north america any african ancestry made a person “black”. In Brazil Skin color determined your status and education.  5.     What distinguished the British settler colonies of North America from their counterparts in Latin America? The british settlers were looking to separate themselves from their old english lifes. There were far more british settlers than settlers from latin america. The british colonies did not have any racial mixing unlike the Spanish and Portuguese territories. These colonies had little to no need for slaves. Spain was much more interested in spreading christianity because the church and the state were connected more than in the british colonies. The British created traditions of local self-government and they debated the prerogatives of the royal governors. 6.     What motivated Russian empire building? The russians were more motivated to create the russian empire because they feared the mongols raiding their agricultural societies. This drove the russians to siberia where they found opportunity. They had access to fur-bearing animals which had great demand in world trade. Wooden forts created protection from trading centers and numerous amounts of farmers. The potential conversion to christianity of the native siberians also motivated the russians.   7.     How did the Russian Empire transform the life of its conquered people and of the Russian homeland itself? The conquered had to take an oath to the russian rule. This was meant as a confession of loyalty and as a payment toward the russian ruler. There was also pressure to join Christianity. The economy became very dependant on the russian markets because the hunting grounds became areas for agricultural settlements. Russia became very militarized which gave them the reputation of  an overruling state. 8.     What were the major features of Chinese empire building in the early modern era? The growth of the Chinese empire allowed for the growth of territory. Along with this growth of territory allowed for  the introduction of  non-chinese people into the empire. The empire was built mainly because of security concerns. The chinese officials did not force any specific religion. the y accepted Mongolian, Tibetan, and Muslim cultures 9.     How did Mughal attitudes and policies toward Hindus change from the time of Akbar to that of Aurangzeb? during the time of akbar, limits were empower on the power of Ulama. There was no longer a tax on non Muslims. Built many different places of worship for many different religions. During the time of Aurangzeb Islam was pushed to be seen as superior. The tax on non Muslims was brought back along with more taxes to support expansion. 10. In what ways was the Ottoman Empire important for Europe in the early modern era?        In the eyes of Europe, the Ottoman Empire was a military threat. The Ottoman Empire was also impressive because of their religious tolerance. Both the Ottoman Empire and Europe were against Australia. They often created alliances with France. THe Ottoman Empire controlled the access to eastern goods and therefore really important in trade.   The great dying- diseases  brought by the europeans that affected the native amaericans. Many died of smallpox, measles, and  yellow fever. Killed 90% of native americans.  Columbian exchange-  large exchange between america, asia, africa and europe. Exchange of plants, animals, food,and disease.  Peninsulares-1450-1750 :  conquistadores trying to protect their rights  against immigrants ; they  were of the highest social class Mestizo- a mixed – race, population, this was created from the combination of Spanish men and indian women Mulattoes- Portuguese-African unions each with different race mixes. Plantation Complex- Colonies in south Africa,  Kenya and Hawaii where  European populations lived among a majority of indigenous people  Settler Colonies- the colonizing people settled in large numbers,  Siberia- russians traveled away from the chinese and to participate in the world wide commerse. Yasak- tribute  that Russian rulers requested from the Native peoples of Siberia Quing Dynasty Empire-the ruling dynasty of China from  1644 to 1912. helped expand the dynasty North by enlarging the territory Mughal Empire-muslim state. muslim minority ruling over a Hindu majority Akbar- Indias most famous emperor,t he did not require them to convert to Islam..Aurangzeb- A strain of Muslim thinking found a champion in the emperor who reversed Akbar’s policy of accommodation.  the great grandson of Akbar Ottoman Empire-creation of Turkic warriors.  founded by Osman in Northwest Anatolia. the ottoman empire was based in Istanbul .Constantinople-  The Ottoman Turks returned in 1453 to take down the city, and with it the Byzantine empire.  Devshirme- taking boys from their conquered Christian people to be trained as Muslim soldiers.

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