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can define as managerial skill and entrepreneurial spirit are needed to start
and run a profitable farm business and. Some of the farmers are already
excellent managers and the spirit of an entrepreneur. Few of the farmers have
developed outstanding abilities to make the most of them are lack of
innovative, do not want to takes risks, and lack the drive that is usually
associated with an entrepreneurial spirit. Hence, the farm-entrepreneurs have
to provide a better understanding of the concept and practice of
entrepreneurship with extension workers will be better able to help farmers
develop the skills and spirit of an entrepreneur.


   Entrepreneurship is one of the main factor
for the survival of small scale farming in an ever-changing and increasingly
complex global economy. Entrepreneurship can be the term of value of chain and
market linkage with agriculture and farming usually. The future of small-scale
farmers will be limited if they did not run their farm with more
entrepreneurial. Hence, they need to increase their produce for markets and for
profits, it may be a challenge for small-scale farmers to become more
entrepreneurial but they also can get help form extension worker and other
institutions. As an entrepreneur that is who that produces for the market.
Entrepreneur is a determined and creative leader, always looking for
opportunities to improve and expand his business. They need responsibility to
calculated the risks for profits and losses. Furthermore, they need passionate
about the growing of business, always find for new opportunities and also be
innovators. It will help the entrepreneur for better and more efficient and
profitable ways to do things. Being innovative is an important quality for a
farmer-entrepreneur, especially when the business faces strong competition or
operates in a rapidly changing environment.

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   Farmer-entrepreneurs see their farms as a
business for earning profits. Small-scale farmers can also become entrepreneurs,
they have shown a remarkable ability to adapt. They look for better ways to
organise their farms like example, they have try new crops and cultivars,
better animals, and alternative technologies to increase productivity,
diversify production, reduce risk and increase profits. They have become more
market oriented and have learned to take calculated risks to open or create new
markets for their products. Many small-scale farmers have many of the qualities
of an entrepreneur.


   However, they need
to be innovative and forward-looking to manage their businesses as long-term
ventures with a view to making them sustainable. They need to be able to
identify opportunities and seize them. Some small-scale farmers do have
these qualities, but they still focus on maintaining their traditional way of
life. Their production decisions are based on what they need not on what is
possible. The farmer-entrepreneur need to have a clear plan in his mind of what
is possible and the future he wants. They also known what is possible is
determined by the market. The farmer-entrepreneur is always looking for new
opportunities and knows that new opportunities are found in the market to make
profits. An entrepreneurial farmer has the initiative, drive, capacity and
ability to take advantage of opportunities.

farmers usually farm for one of four reasons for example exclusively for home
consumption with rarely any surpluses produced, mostly for home consumption,
but with the intention of selling surpluses on the market. Partly for the
market and partly for home consumption or exclusively for the market. These
four reason will effect the profit that the entrepreneur in his business.


   Next, the speaker Ricky Toong Foo Weng had
mentioned that the global halal industry is a trend of the market and this is
also his research topic in his PHD report. According to the speaker he says,
halal market is estimated to be worth around USD2.3 trillion (excluding Islamic
finance) with growing at an estimated annual rate of 20%, the industry is
valued at about USD560 billion a year. Hence, halal market is one of the
fastest glowing in the world with around 1.8 billion. The halal industry has
now expanded no only in food sector and it also included pharmaceuticals,
cosmetics, health products, toiletries and medical devices as well as service
sector components such as logistics, marketing, print and electronic media,
packaging, branding, and financing. The halal industry has expanded further
into lifestyle offerings including halal travel and hospitality services as
well as fashion. This development has been triggered by the change in the mind
set of Muslim consumers as well as ethical consumer trends worldwide.


   Moreover, the halal market is non-exclusive to
Muslims, and has gained increasing acceptance among non-Muslim consumers who
associate halal with ethical consumerism. This is due to the values promoted by
halal – social responsibility, stewardship of the earth, economic and social
justice, animal welfare and ethical investment. The popularity of, and demand
for, halal certified products among non-Muslim consumers have been on the rise
as more consumers are looking for high quality, safe and ethical products. No
longer a mere religious obligation or observance for Muslims, halal (which
means “lawful” or “allowable”) has become a powerful market force, becoming
increasingly a world-wide market phenomenon for both Muslims and non-Muslims


the dynamics within the Muslim world change and globalisation trends continue
to shape consumers’ tastes, habit and spending patterns across the world It is
highly likely that the developing halal markets will have increasingly
influential roles in the established markets of the Middle East and Asia
particularly by influencing global corporate halal strategies.


by the point that speaker had give in the talk, organic food also be a trend
same with halal market. This is due to organic food was a niche market in Malaysia
some normal retailers and supermarkets, for instance, did not carry organic
food. Consequently, some people took the initiative to setup informal,
home-based distribution center to help to obtain and sell organic food. These
informal, home-based distributors were run by people who themselves followed
natural or alternative health systems and diets. Form all this informal ways to
gain organic food, which also Malaysian is supporting the healthy food provided
but the market have supply enough for the demand.


in Malaysia, organic agriculture has a relatively young and less spectacular
history. The development of organic farming followed two concurrent paths, one
led by the NGOs (non-governmental organizations) and the other by the private
sector. One NGO that played an pioneering and prominent role is CETDEM (Centre
for Environment, Technology and Development, Malaysia) who became wary of
conventional agriculture practices, in particular over issues on environment
degradation, health of plantation workers from pesticide use, food safety, and
low external sustainable agriculture. Organic agriculture is an important type
of agriculture farming. Scientific evidence currently show that the issues of
organic agriculture and organic food are not clear cut as proponents and
opponents of organics would like to have us think. The evidence instead points
to both the good and bad of organics.





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