; Caylan, Grisielou L.; Ranque, Phamy L.; Rosaroso, Marvin A. Chapter 1INTRODUCTION Background of the StudyPhilippines,Djibouti and Angola and other countries in Asia are the remaining countries whoremain with a 10-year pre-university program. The Philippine Educational Systemis one of the most abrupt formal educations in the world covering a span of 14years. This system involves 6-year primary education, 4 years for secondaryeducation and another 4 years for tertiary education.
Fortunately, thegovernment offers free and compulsory education for the first 6-year class of apupil. For secondary education, mandated order for curriculum is extended. Asfor the tertiary education, it does not negotiates compulsory education, butoffers scholarship programs. For thisreason, the country formulates an idea that adapts the educational system ofthe majority.Inorder to maneuver this evident problem on education, the Department ofEducation has started to implement the new K-12 Curriculum, which serves as themajor redeem in the existing curriculum. This reform includes boosting of basiceducation for mastery and extending of basic education curriculum toincorporate 12 years. By prolonging the basic education, that is, addingkindergarten and two years in high school.
The recent program ensures thatgraduates earn the necessary skills and reach the legal age for employment toqualify entrance into the world of work, if they desire or need to do so. Onthe other hand, graduates who opt to go to tertiary education are deemed betterprepared for college study (Seameo Innotech, 2012). Amajor change brought about by K-12 curriculum is the addition of two years insecondary education, known as Senior High School (SHS). The old 4-yearsecondary curriculum will be now renamed as Junior High School (JHS) whichstarts from Grades 7 to Grade 10, and Senior High School will follow throughfrom Grades 11 to 12. Thenewly implemented curriculum offers the highlights on opportunityspecialization in Academic, Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, Sports and Arts fields.The chosen tracks depend on the students’ preference, interest and capacities.
Also, it will determine the subjects to be taken by the student during his/herSenior High School. Thetracks mentioned are as follows: 1. AcademicTrack a.
Accountancy, Businessand Management (ABM) b. General AcademicStrand (GAS)c. Humanities and SocialSciences (HUMSS) d. Science, Technology, Engineeringand Mathematics (STEM)2.Technical-vocational Track a. Agriculture-Fisheries b. Home Economics c. Industrial Arts d.
Information and CommunicationsTechnology (ICT) 3.Sports Track4.Arts and Design TrackStatement of the Problem This study aims to determine the differentfactors that affect the Senior High School strand preference of selected 10students; specifically, it aims to answer the following questions:1. Leadingfactors that affects the students’ preference in choosing Senior High Schoolstrand in terms of:a.
Personalityb. Family/Relativesc. Interestsd.
JobOpportunities2. Howdo these factors do affect the student’s decision making in choosing SeniorHigh School strand?Theoretical and Conceptual Framework This study is anchored on the theoryof Donald Super which focuses on the development of life roles over the lifespan with emphasis on inter-role congruence. His vocational concept as a partof self-concept is formed; it is the driving force that establishes a careerpattern one will follow through life (Super, 1990). Vocational developmentaltasks are conclude from vocational stages which provides framework forvocational behavior and attitudes.
The vocational developmental stages are thefollowings: 1.Growth (birth-age 14 or 15), characterized by development of capacity,attitudes, interests, and needs associated with self-concepts; 2.Explanatory (ages 15-24), characterized by a tentative phase in which choicesare. 3.
Establishment (ages 25-44), characterized by trial and stabilization throughwork experiences; 4.Maintenance (ages 45-64), characterized by a continual adjustment process toimprove working position and situation; and 5.Decline (ages 65+), characterized by preretirement considerations, reduced workoutput, and eventual retirement. Thecrystallization task (ages 14-18) is forming a preferred career plan andconsidering how it might be implemented. Relevant information is studied withthe goal of becoming more aware of the preferred choice and the wisdom ofpreference. The specification task (ages 18-21) follows in which the individualfeels the need to specify the career plan through more specific resources andexplicit awareness of cogent variables of the preferred choice. The implementationtask (ages 21-24) is accomplished by the completion of training and entry intothe career and develops a feeling of security in career position.
Thestabilization (ages 24-35) is reached when the individual is firmly establishedin a career and develops a feeling of security in career position. Finally, theconsolidation task (35+) follows with advancement and seniority in a career.Super also identified six dimensions that were thought to be relevant andappropriate for adolescents:1. Orientation to Vocational Choice (anattitudinal dimension determining whether the individual is concerned with theeventual vocational choice to be made);2. Information and planning;3. Consistency of Vocational Preferences(individuals’ consistency of preferences); 4.
Crystallization of Traits (individualprogress toward forming a self-concept); 5. Vocational Independence (independence ofwork experience); and6. Wisdom of Vocational Preferences(dimension concerned with individuals ability to make realistic preferencesconsistent with personal tasks.)Thistheory is found to be appropriate because of its stressfulness in terms ofdeveloping a career plan that will guide the individual in choosing his/hercareer pathway. Also, Super’s six-dimension is appropriate for adolescent istruly applicable because high school students fall under this category.Anothertheory adopted for the research is David Tiedeman’s “Self -DevelopmentApproaches to Career”. Tiedeman believes that evolving ego-identity is ofcentral importance in the career development process.
Tiedeman referred to theevolving self-in-situation from the earliest awareness of self to point atwhich individual becomes capable of evaluating experiences, anticipating, andimagining future goals, and storing experiences in memory for future referencewith Tiedeman’s context of Erik Erikson’s eight psychosocial crises.Self-in-situation, self-in-world and the orientation of work evolve as oneresolves the psychosocial crises of life. Tiedeman therefore conceptualized aparadigm for problem-solving as the mechanism of career decision making. Theparadigm covers four aspects of anticipation or preoccupation (exploration,crystallization, choice, and clarification) and three aspects of implementationof adjustment (induction, reformation, and integration). Tiedemanstressed out why individual change their courses of action because of externalfactors because of external forces (such as the call of the armed forces, aneconomic crisis, the work setting itself) or by broad psychological drives(such as unmet needs, changing aspirations, role diffusion). According to theprescribed sequence, a new decision unfolds and must be made, beginning withexploration and eventually reaching integration. If integration is not reachedonce again, the individual may adapt to a career environment or may simplywithdraw and begin a new search for eventual integration. Therationale between these two theories is one follows a vocational self-conceptwhich is a driving force that establishes a career pattern one will followthrough life but there are some factors could might altered this pattern.
Thesefactors, such as external forces (called of armed services, economic crisis,and work setting itself) and psychological drives (unmet needs, changingaspirations, role diffusion) altered the career patterns of individual. Supersaid that indecisiveness is a period in developmental process when interestshave not been fully crystallized. Individuals lead to discriminate two or morechoices of two or more occupational objectives when uncertainty about futureoccurs. Tiedemann noted that as individuals become more aware of the developingcharacter of the career process itself, they are more willing to make changesand to alter or redefine a decision.Thefocus of this study was undertaken by the following conceptual framework.Input– This includes their track preference and the factors that affect theirpreference.Process– In the research process, this includes determining their track preferencesand determining the leading factors that affect their preference.Output– This study would identify the track preferences of Grade 10 students ofValencia National High School and the factors that affect them which can beused as basis for a career guidance program of the said school and for certaininstitutions that would like to design and implement a Senior High Schoolprogram.
Significance of the StudyLearningis the aspect of development that connotes modification of behavior, skills andknowledge that results from practice and experience which sought for qualityeducation. The generalization of this present study would be a greatcontribution to the vast knowledge in relation to student’s achievements. Vitalresults of this investigation could be highly significant and beneficialspecifically to the following:Researchers – Thisstudy will inspire them to be creative to carry out programs that arebeneficial to both teachers and students, especially in Senior High School. Students – As theprospective Senior High School learners in the future, the findings of thisstudy would benefit and inspire them to formulate and act upon on their careerplans in the future.Future Researchers –This study would serve as reference that would help in conducting their ownresearch studiesScope andDelimitationsThestudy is to be administered at Valencia National High School. The said schoolis selected based mainly on the proximity of its location to the researchersand on the kind of the education that they offer to its clientele.
ValenciaNational High School, commonly known as VNHS is situated at Lapu-lapu St.,Poblacion, Valencia City, Bukidnon. The school stimulates the students’ rightsto quality, equitable, culture-based and complete basic education. For thisreason, the student hones skills and attitude while maintaining sense ofself-discipline. This study focuses on the senior high school track preferencesof their Grade 10 students of the Academic Year 2017-2018.
Definitions of TermsEducation- the process of receiving or giving systematicinstruction, especially at a school or university. K-12Curriculum – in general educational term, it typically refers to thecontent being taught and the learning experiences students have in the schoolsetting in grades kindergarten through twelve. K-12 program – is the newly implementededucational system in the PhilippinesSeniorHigh School – is the second part of secondaryeducation under the K-12 program, wherein the students would take up thesubjects under their career pathway specializationCareerPathways – optional courses that offers the student forspecialization in academic, technical-vocational, sports and arts, andentrepreneurship