1)GRID USE FOCUSED GRID
the central grid strips are parallel and as the strips move away from the
central axis they become more and more inclined
impoving the contrast without impairing the view of the patient’s anatomy
the lead strips so they would run in only one direction.
strips thinner and therefore less abvious on the image
a device that allowed the grid to move during the exposure
the grid , the lead strips become blurred and were no longer visible on the
materials – lead – inexpensive/easy to shape into very
– increases to improve contrast
-aluminium -allow radiation pass easily
ratio must high to allow less scatter radiation to pass through their
interspace material to reach the image receptor
frequency must high to minimize the possibility seeing the grid lines on the
be light for easy manipulation
flexible so as not to allow the film to bend
slightly larger than the x-ray beam and area to be radiographed to easy of the
Use Rare earth elements
as they are faster and have higher absorption and conversion efficiency
from x-ray photons to the light photons.
reduce dose to patient
4)FILM USE ORTHOCHROMATIC FILMS
sensitive to the red spectrum .
-Ensures the quality of the
film as the tape is opened in a dark room.
Facilitates the taking
of X-ray films, particularly lateral views,and also stabilizes the part being
x-ray during exposure of the film.
from radiation and reduce the effective dose
Lead can effectively attenuate radiation because its
high density and high atomic number
Example – gonad shield , lead apron , and thyroid collars
the radiographer to positioning patients in various positions and angles
Allowing the patient to be kept still in the required
radiographer for patient positioning especially in erect bucky because erect
bucky can not be lowered to floor
Help radiographer determine anatomical side of body, date of
the procedure, and the patients name.
radiographer to get the criteria requested by a doctor such as open joint