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AbstractMy researchpaper talks about what an electric car is and what its functions are. Due to problemscaused by the gasoline engine on the environment and people, automotiveindustry has turned to electric vehicles.

I’ve researched upon electric cars tofind out what makes it work so smoothly while making the car lighter than itscounterparts, the gasoline engine. The electric cars are the future of cars.Brief View of the technology is given.

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          INTRODUCTIONElectricalcars are easily taking over the market. They are efficient and pollution free.It is environment friendly as it is C02 free emission.Cars produce a lot of carbon emissions that are ejected into our natural atmosphere, leavingus vulnerable to things like pollution and greenhouse gases.In order to help positively theenvironment we live in, an electric car is a great step forward. By buying an electric car, you can alsoreceive government subsidies for being environmentally conscious.

Although you may end up paying more foryour vehicle, the positives greatly overshadow the negatives. 1Electrical cars have various componentsin them that make them run smooth and have good speed with it.Today ill discuss about the importantcomponents in the electrical car and the advantages and disadvantages In it.    What is an Electricalcar?An electrical car (EV) is an automobilethat is propelled by one or more motors. Electric motors give electric carsinstant torque,creating strong and smooth acceleration.The electric car is a relatively new concept in the world of the automotiveindustry.

Although some companies have based their entire model of cars aroundbeing proactive and using electricity, some also offer hybrid vehicles that work off both electricity and gas.Electrical vehicles get their powerfrom rechargeable batteries installed inside the car. These batteries are notonly used to power the car but also used for the functioning of lights andwipers. Electric cars have more batteries than normal gasoline car. It’s thesame kind of batteries that are commonly used when starting up a gasolineengine.

The only difference comes in the fact that in electric vehicles, theyhave more of them which are used to power the engine.1  Important Components ofElectrical car BATTERY:A battery is the most importantcomponent of the Electric car.Without this, the electric car isnot functional.There are several types ofbatteries such as NiMH and lead acid batteries and replacing the lead-acid batteries with NiMH batteries willdouble the range of the car and the batteries will last 10 years. But the costof the batteries today is 10 to 15 times greater than lead-acid. In otherwords, an NiMH battery pack will cost $20,000 to $30,000 (today) instead of$2,000. Electric cars will have significantly better range at that point.

1An electric car has a normal 12-volt lead-acid battery topower all of the accessories. To keep the battery charged, an electric carneeds a DC-to-DC converter.This converter takes in the DC power from the main battery array (at, forexample, 300 volts DC) and converts it down to 12 volts to recharge theaccessory battery.1Any electric car thatuses batteries needs a charging system to recharge thebatteries. The charging system has two goals:·       To pumpelectricity into the batteries as quickly as the batteries will allow·       Tomonitor the batteries and avoid damaging them during the charging process.

2  The motor controller:Themotor controller monitors and helps to regular all key performance indicators,including those from the vehicle’s operator, motor, battery, accelerator pedal,and more. Equipped with a powerful microprocessor, it can limit or redirectcurrent – either to improve the mechanical performance of the device or suitthe operator’s driving style. Generally, more controllers are capable ofgreater precision and thus, higher efficiency. 2 The Electric Engine:Electricengines can be made to use either AC or DC current. AC motors tend to be lessexpensive and lighter than DC engines, reaching about 95% efficiency at fullload compared to the 85%-95% attained by AC engines. AC engines are more commonin other types of electrical devices.

2 Regenerative braking:Itgives more range to an electric vehicle. Regenerative braking has been adoptedin virtually all hybrid and BEV models on the road today. It allows theextraction of energy from the braked components so it can be reused rather thanwasted. When the operator applies the brake, the electric motor goes intoreverse mode, allowing the motor itself to do most of the “braking” and thusprevent more kinetic energy from being lost. 2  ADVANTAGESOF USING ELECTRICAL CARS: Zerotailpipe emissions:Zero means no exhaust – nothing to pollutethe air and adversely affect health, or add greenhouse gases to theenvironment. This is a clear-cut advantage over gas cars  Reduced maintenance:Electric vehicles have fewer movingparts, and maintenance intervals like oil changes, spark plug replacement, andother services required by a complex internal combustion engine andtransmission.

They have regenerative braking whichreturns energy to the battery, and spares the friction brakes, so brake pad,rotor, caliper and other maintenance is less frequent typically, as wellLess noise while driving:While other cars make weird and loudnoises (depends from car to car), electrical cars are on the quiet side wherethey give you instant torque and a calm and silent drive without making anynoises.SUBSIZED:Gasoline cars are cheaper, but they get zip,and free money is OK. Some people object to that, and they are entitled tothis, but this society otherwise has said it wants to reward and encourage EVadopters, so the authorities smile on it, even if others don’t.4 DISADVANTAGES:1 The main disadvantages of electric carownership concern range anxiety: the fear you’ll run out of juice when you’renowhere near a charging station. Both the Ford Focus Electric and Nissan Leafoffer a range of approximately 75 miles. For most drivers, that’s more thanenough to get around — but many will require a second car, if only to calmtheir nerves.2 Another big disadvantage is that manydrivers will have to install a charging station at home.

It’s not necessary,however, as you can simply charge your EV at work or at various public chargingstations. But most shoppers will want a charging station at home, cutting intothe cost savings from owning an EV in the first place.3 Electrical vehicles ownershipeliminates many maintenance hassles, such as oil changes, it can also lead tobig expenses. These are mostly because of batteries mounted in modern electricvehicles. Overall battery life is expected to be around a decade, andreplacement battery packs can be costly. Most estimates put them well into thethousands of dollars.4 EV ownership doesn’t eliminate fuelcosts entirely.

As mentioned, electricity isn’t free — and charging duringpeak hours can add to your utility bills. Still, many drivers won’t see costsincrease more than $20 per month, at most.5   EXAMPLETESLA: The future ofcarsTESLAunveiled the new Roadster at the Semi truck launch. The roadster promises hugeelectric car range of over 600 miles, unchallenged 0-60mph acceleration speedsand dynamic styling.

Teslahad another surprise in store at the SemiTruck launch -the unveiling of the new Roadster. TeslaSemi truckblew fans away with its incredible design, 500 miles of range and BugattiChiron beating drag efficiency. However, Tesla also confirmed that itis making a Roadster 2.0.It has become the fastest productioncar ever made with a 0-60mph time of 1.9 seconds and 0-100 mph in 4.2seconds.

 A top speed for the Roadster 2.0 is 250miles per hour The current world’s fastest car has atop speed of 277.7mph. This top speed beats cars such as theKoenigsegg CCR, McLaren F1, Bugatti Veyron and the Ferrari LaFerrari.

6     CONCLUSION:Accordingto me, electric cars have already started revolutionalising the world of carsbut on the other had it still is very expensive and needs some more improvementsto make it unbeatable in this world full of gasoline cars.

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