Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

Abstract—Smartphone become part of life and
are used everywhere not only as a phone but also different purposes. So that in
this paper focusing on a comparative study of the mostly used smartphone
operating system such as android by Google Inc. and iOS by Apple. This article
gives the important features of the two leading smartphone operating system.
Moreover this article deals with pro and cons of these operating system and a
statistically analyze the number of users and apps developed for these
platforms.

Keywords— Android by Google; iOS by Apple; Smartphones;ART; Operating
System;

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

                                                                                                                                                     
I.      Introduction

Operating system is a system software that work as an interface
between a user and the computer. Every operating system run with the aim of: to
execute user programs, troubleshoot any errors, provide easy to use interface, and
efficiently utilize computer resources.

The operating system not only provide services for users
but also provide for developer to make possible operation without having
low-level hardware control. The operating system provide uniform interfaces to
interact different types of devices such as I/O devices. The operating system
provide the facility of creating, managing and organizing of files. Modern
operating system provides graphical user interface that is easy to usage even
for naïve users.

                                                                                                                                              
II.    operating system

The operating system become advanced as advancement of
hardware, modern operating system have the capability of multithreading and
support of multicore architectures. Modern operating system for smartphones have
also the capability of supporting multithreading and support different types
of  media format which includes: audios,
videos and images, moreover these operating system support different types of
sensor like GPS, accelerometers, and also support video cameras, touchscreen,
accelerated 3D graphics.

                                                                                                                  
III.   operating system for smartphones

A.    Android Operating System

Android operating system is based on Linux kernel. Android
operating system is the leading mobile platform and it comes with a lot of
features with speed and performance. The latest version released is android
version 8.1.0 Oreo on December 5 2017 with features to improve mobile
experience. Android is an operating system for smartphones and other devices
such as smart TV. Android is especially designed for touch screen mobile
devices, but also used in smart TV and cars as Android Auto and also in smart
watches as Android Wear. It can be said that Android Operating System is
running on many hardware products as an Operating System. Due to android a smartphone
become like a personal computer having limited physical size.

Android Operating System backed an Android Market which is
formally known as Google Play, Google Play provide services of online selling
of android applications. Since December 2017 android market has 3.5 million of
android applications available to the users. Android market were initially
accepted free application later on since 2009, payable application also added
to the market.

Android Operating System is an open source software
platform that can be modified and improved by any users. That is why developers
from third-parties get benefit of it. Google opened entire source code of
android operating system, so that developer can add their extensions. Android
has some libraries and APIs that are not fully open source, and therefore it is
criticized by developer community.

The latest version of android operating system is 8.1.0
which is known as “Oreo” developed by Google and released on December 5, 2017.
Android Operating System version started from Android version 1.0 in November
2007 and then after very large number of new updates has been added to
operating system. Each updates improve performance and removed bugs in previous
version. Since December 2017, each version of android operating system comes
with a names in alphabetical orders:

TABLE
I.            
table for ndroid version release date

Android Operating System

Android OS Version

OS Code Name

Release Year

1.0

Alpha

September 23, 2008

1.1

Beta

February 9, 2009

1.5

Cupcake

April 27, 2009

1.6

Donut

September 15, 2009

2.0 to 2.1

Éclair

October 26, 2009

2.2 to 2.2.3

Froyo

May 20, 2010

2.3 to 2.3.7

Gingerbread

December 6, 2010

3.0 to 3.2.6

Honeycomb

February 22, 2011

4.0 to 4.0.4

Ice Cream Sandwich

October 18, 2011

4.1 to 4.3.1

Jelly Bean

July 9, 2012

4.4. to 4.4.4

KitKat

October 31, 2013

5.0 to 5.1.1

Lollipop

November 12, 2014

6.0 to.6.0.1

Marshmallow

October 5, 2015

7.0 to 7.1.2

Nougat

August 22, 2016

8.0 to 8.1

Oreo

August 21, 2017

 

Fig. 1.   
Android different version .

Android platform used just-in-time process (JIT) for
compiling code obtained from Java byte code, for that reason uses a virtual
machine namely Dalvik. Dalvik compiles the application each time of lunching it.

Fig. 2.   
Android operating system architecture with
Dalvik virtual machine.

From Fig. 2, Linux is just part of the android
architecture, and placed at the lowest level. Android operating system not a
Linux operating system, and most of the developers don not have access to the
lowest level of the operating system. Android Operating System has a Linux
kernel, and it has virtual machine on it, which is called Dalvik virtual
machine, and so Linux features are not accessible to users. The second layer of
android operating system is application framework domain, and this layer is
written in Java language. This layer is represented in blue color of Figure 2
of android architecture. Android application developers are limited to the only
upper layer of the android architecture. But device manufacturers has access of
all layers for the sake of optimization.

After the release of android 4.4, android introduce a new
method of running application which is known as Android Runtime (ART), in ART
applications are compiles the bytecode at the time of installing the software. ART
work as a middle layer between compiled and interpreted code, it’s known as
ahead-of-time (AOT) compilation. Before ART android application were
interpreted at runtime by just-in-time (JIT) which slow down the system. After
introducing ART, android applications is compiled to native code during
installation of the application. ART takes some time during installation of the
application. In android 4.4 Dalvik was not fully replaced to ART, there was
option for user to select runtime:

Fig. 3.   
Android operating runtime change option
between Dalvik and ART.

But after 4.4, in Android 5.0, the
Dalvik virtual machine is completely replaced with Android Run Time (ART).

     Android Run
Time technique eliminate Just-in-Time-associated processing, to improve system
performance and power usage of the smartphone battery. ART installation may
take some time but running the applications it reduces the cost of resources
and CPU utilization, so battery life of smartphone increases. ART also improve
garbage collector, application debugging and measurement of performance.  Due to ART system efficiency increase
and battery usage decrease. ART also use bytecode format as the Dalvik virtual
machine for the generated code to maintain compatibility with previous
applications versions, which uses Dalvik virtual machine.

Fig. 4.   
Android platform architecture.

      Android
Run Time (ART) is cross-platform that means its applications can be run on ARM,
MIPS and MIPS64, x86064 architectures.   

B.    iOS Operating System

Mobile phone Operating System iOS (formerly known as
iPhone OS) is developed by Apple Inc, for its own hardware manufactured by
Apple. iOS was originally developed for iPhone but later on it was further
extended to other Apple devices, like iPad, iPod touch, Apple TV, Apple Watch.
Apple devices are stable as compared to other manufacturer’s devices, but also
more expansive than other.

iOS is Unix-like operating system, which contain elements
of Mac Operating System. iOS operating system provide over-the-air (OTA) interface
for updating. Apple iOS not supported Adobe application of Flash multimedia.

iOS 11 is the latest release of the iOS operating system
by Apple Inc. It is the successor to iOS 10. iOS 11 was first announced by the
Apple Inc at the Worldwide Developer Conference on June 5, 2017, and later on
released on September 19, 2017. iOS 11 is based on iOS 10.

      Apple
App Store is digital distribution platform for iOS application developed by
Apple for iOS operating system. By using Apple App Store iOS users can download
application for iOS. Latest release of iOS 11 has redesigned the control center
by which accessed is performed by swiping up from anywhere in iOS, except from
lock screen. In iOS 11 the control center is designed as customizable. The new
Dock provided by iOS 11 make files more accessible as compared to previous
released and also Dock is accessible from different places as compared to
previous one. iOS 11 make drag and drop really useful, someone can drag and
drop and image into an email.

Fig. 5.   
iOS 11 operating system.

iOS operating system due to its stability and
functionality make iPhone market successful in the world. Google Android is the
competitor market of iOS in the world. iOS operating system as compared to Android
is very different because both of the operating system and the devices is
developed by the same company, Apple. iOS operating system cannot be install
and run on different machines, because of no license issued by the company
Apple to install the iOS operating system on devices that has not manufactured
by Apple. For iOS developer there are simulators on the market. iOS operator
system has four levels of abstraction:

·      
iOS operating system kernel

·      
Core services level.

·      
Media level.

·      
User interface level.

Due to being closed source, there are not so much
information available about iOS operating system. And so that there is no chart
available to represent iOS operating system architecture. According to Cocoa
Touch, a UI framework, which is developed for the user to build applications to
run on iOS is:

Core operating system level contains the kernel of the
system, series of devices drivers, file manager etc. Core level of the iOS is
closet level to the hardware with a UNIX kernel. Which is developed using c
language. iOS operating system is kernel is a core of Darwin and which is
called XNU. iOS operating system version start from 1.0. The Core Services
level is the next upper level of the framework.  The core services layer is developed in object
oriented, but the core level layer was developed in structure programming using
c language. Core Services provide the functionality of handling interaction
with network, administration and management of contact and other options. These
function provide the way of handling hardware features of devices such as GPS,
Gyroscope, accelerometer and compass etc. The third layer of the framework is
Media Level which is used for multimedia related functionalities. Fourth and to
level layer of the framework provide UI layer, which is used to developed
interface for the user to interact with the application.

Fig. 6.   
Cocoa touch, an abstraction of iOS operating system.

Cocoa Touch provide user interface of iOS operating system
for the developer. This interface framework is used by developer when
developing application. Cocoa touch interface framework is fully
object-oriented. It enables developer to write an application for iOS operating
system. It also provide infrastructure support for multitasking, touch,
notifications. The main development language used to developed application for
iOS is objective-c language and Swift. Swift was developed by Apple in 2014 for
iOS operating system and swift is compiled programming language.

App Store is the only platform for iOS application, on
selling of application through app store developer will receive 70% of the app
and 30% go to Apple. App store is the largest online store in the world for iOS
operating system applications. App Store can be used by only Apple devices. iOS
application is developed using objective-c and swift, both are compiled
language, and so iOS operating system is not needed to use virtual machine.

TABLE
II.          
Comparison table of os services offered by android and
ios

Android and iOS comparison

 

Android 8.1.0 Oreo

iOS 11

Application Store

Google Play

App Store

User interface

Leanback

Cocoa Touch

Web Browser

Chorme

Webkit2

3D Graphic

OpenGL

Metal

Programming Language

Java

Objectiv-C/Swift

Virtual Machine

None

None

 

                                                                                                                                                     
IV.   Conclusions

The smartphone operating systems evaluated here offer
several advantages. These operating system have built in application such as
web browser. And these operating system provide framework to develop
application for these platform. These operating system provide a direct
mechanism to updates application from their application store.

This paper point out the major operating system for
smartphone: iOS and Android. These operating system performed advanced
operation like multitasking etc. Both the operating system has numerous
functions. In term of usage both the operating system have about similar app
store. Android operating system has the market share of around 70% in the
world. While Apple has the largest profit share. Therefore Apple iOS is first
in the chain of profitability. Mostly each quality application are available in
both market. iOS is different from android because the final product produce
and controlled by Apple own. And you cannot use iOS operating system in
different device, due to no license for installation of the operating system on
hardware devices developed by other than Apple. This is the main disadvantages
of iOS, because it is not portable for other devices produced by companies
other than Apple.  

References

1    
A.Silberschatz, G.Gagne, P.B. Galvin, Operating System Concepts, 8th
edition.

2    
W.Stallings, Operating Systems: Internationals and Design
Principles, 7th edition.

3    
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocoa_Touch

4    
https://developer.apple.com/documentation/

5    
https://source.android.com/devices/tech/dalvik/

6    
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swift

7    
http://www.coderiddles.com/ios-platform/

8    
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/App_Store_(iOS)

9    
https://source.android.com/devices/

10  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_version_history

11  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Play

12  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IOS_version_history

13  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swift

14  http://www.samsung.com/ro/article/android-2-2-os-explained/

15  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_operating_system

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Dora!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out