Abstract—Smartphone become part of life andare used everywhere not only as a phone but also different purposes.
So that inthis paper focusing on a comparative study of the mostly used smartphoneoperating system such as android by Google Inc. and iOS by Apple. This articlegives the important features of the two leading smartphone operating system.Moreover this article deals with pro and cons of these operating system and astatistically analyze the number of users and apps developed for theseplatforms.Keywords— Android by Google; iOS by Apple; Smartphones;ART; OperatingSystem; I. IntroductionOperating system is a system software that work as an interfacebetween a user and the computer.
Every operating system run with the aim of: toexecute user programs, troubleshoot any errors, provide easy to use interface, andefficiently utilize computer resources.The operating system not only provide services for usersbut also provide for developer to make possible operation without havinglow-level hardware control. The operating system provide uniform interfaces tointeract different types of devices such as I/O devices. The operating systemprovide the facility of creating, managing and organizing of files. Modernoperating system provides graphical user interface that is easy to usage evenfor naïve users. II.
operating systemThe operating system become advanced as advancement ofhardware, modern operating system have the capability of multithreading andsupport of multicore architectures. Modern operating system for smartphones havealso the capability of supporting multithreading and support different typesof media format which includes: audios,videos and images, moreover these operating system support different types ofsensor like GPS, accelerometers, and also support video cameras, touchscreen,accelerated 3D graphics. III. operating system for smartphones A. Android Operating SystemAndroid operating system is based on Linux kernel. Androidoperating system is the leading mobile platform and it comes with a lot offeatures with speed and performance.
The latest version released is androidversion 8.1.0 Oreo on December 5 2017 with features to improve mobileexperience. Android is an operating system for smartphones and other devicessuch as smart TV. Android is especially designed for touch screen mobiledevices, but also used in smart TV and cars as Android Auto and also in smartwatches as Android Wear. It can be said that Android Operating System isrunning on many hardware products as an Operating System.
Due to android a smartphonebecome like a personal computer having limited physical size. Android Operating System backed an Android Market which isformally known as Google Play, Google Play provide services of online sellingof android applications. Since December 2017 android market has 3.5 million ofandroid applications available to the users. Android market were initiallyaccepted free application later on since 2009, payable application also addedto the market.
Android Operating System is an open source softwareplatform that can be modified and improved by any users. That is why developersfrom third-parties get benefit of it. Google opened entire source code ofandroid operating system, so that developer can add their extensions. Androidhas some libraries and APIs that are not fully open source, and therefore it iscriticized by developer community. The latest version of android operating system is 8.1.0which is known as “Oreo” developed by Google and released on December 5, 2017.
Android Operating System version started from Android version 1.0 in November2007 and then after very large number of new updates has been added tooperating system. Each updates improve performance and removed bugs in previousversion. Since December 2017, each version of android operating system comeswith a names in alphabetical orders:TABLEI. table for ndroid version release date Android Operating System Android OS Version OS Code Name Release Year 1.0 Alpha September 23, 2008 1.
1 Beta February 9, 2009 1.5 Cupcake April 27, 2009 1.6 Donut September 15, 2009 2.0 to 2.
1 Éclair October 26, 2009 2.2 to 2.2.3 Froyo May 20, 2010 2.
3 to 2.3.7 Gingerbread December 6, 2010 3.0 to 3.
2.6 Honeycomb February 22, 2011 4.0 to 4.0.
4 Ice Cream Sandwich October 18, 2011 4.1 to 4.3.1 Jelly Bean July 9, 2012 4.4. to 4.4.4 KitKat October 31, 2013 5.
0 to 5.1.1 Lollipop November 12, 2014 6.
0 to.6.0.1 Marshmallow October 5, 2015 7.
0 to 7.1.2 Nougat August 22, 2016 8.
0 to 8.1 Oreo August 21, 2017 Fig. 1. Android different version .Android platform used just-in-time process (JIT) forcompiling code obtained from Java byte code, for that reason uses a virtualmachine namely Dalvik.
Dalvik compiles the application each time of lunching it.Fig. 2. Android operating system architecture withDalvik virtual machine.
From Fig. 2, Linux is just part of the androidarchitecture, and placed at the lowest level. Android operating system not aLinux operating system, and most of the developers don not have access to thelowest level of the operating system. Android Operating System has a Linuxkernel, and it has virtual machine on it, which is called Dalvik virtualmachine, and so Linux features are not accessible to users. The second layer ofandroid operating system is application framework domain, and this layer iswritten in Java language.
This layer is represented in blue color of Figure 2of android architecture. Android application developers are limited to the onlyupper layer of the android architecture. But device manufacturers has access ofall layers for the sake of optimization. After the release of android 4.4, android introduce a newmethod of running application which is known as Android Runtime (ART), in ARTapplications are compiles the bytecode at the time of installing the software.
ARTwork as a middle layer between compiled and interpreted code, it’s known asahead-of-time (AOT) compilation. Before ART android application wereinterpreted at runtime by just-in-time (JIT) which slow down the system. Afterintroducing ART, android applications is compiled to native code duringinstallation of the application.
ART takes some time during installation of theapplication. In android 4.4 Dalvik was not fully replaced to ART, there wasoption for user to select runtime:Fig. 3. Android operating runtime change optionbetween Dalvik and ART.But after 4.4, in Android 5.0, theDalvik virtual machine is completely replaced with Android Run Time (ART).
Android RunTime technique eliminate Just-in-Time-associated processing, to improve systemperformance and power usage of the smartphone battery. ART installation maytake some time but running the applications it reduces the cost of resourcesand CPU utilization, so battery life of smartphone increases. ART also improvegarbage collector, application debugging and measurement of performance. Due to ART system efficiency increaseand battery usage decrease. ART also use bytecode format as the Dalvik virtualmachine for the generated code to maintain compatibility with previousapplications versions, which uses Dalvik virtual machine.
Fig. 4. Android platform architecture. AndroidRun Time (ART) is cross-platform that means its applications can be run on ARM,MIPS and MIPS64, x86064 architectures. B. iOS Operating SystemMobile phone Operating System iOS (formerly known asiPhone OS) is developed by Apple Inc, for its own hardware manufactured byApple.
iOS was originally developed for iPhone but later on it was furtherextended to other Apple devices, like iPad, iPod touch, Apple TV, Apple Watch.Apple devices are stable as compared to other manufacturer’s devices, but alsomore expansive than other. iOS is Unix-like operating system, which contain elementsof Mac Operating System. iOS operating system provide over-the-air (OTA) interfacefor updating. Apple iOS not supported Adobe application of Flash multimedia. iOS 11 is the latest release of the iOS operating systemby Apple Inc. It is the successor to iOS 10.
iOS 11 was first announced by theApple Inc at the Worldwide Developer Conference on June 5, 2017, and later onreleased on September 19, 2017. iOS 11 is based on iOS 10. AppleApp Store is digital distribution platform for iOS application developed byApple for iOS operating system. By using Apple App Store iOS users can downloadapplication for iOS. Latest release of iOS 11 has redesigned the control centerby which accessed is performed by swiping up from anywhere in iOS, except fromlock screen. In iOS 11 the control center is designed as customizable.
The newDock provided by iOS 11 make files more accessible as compared to previousreleased and also Dock is accessible from different places as compared toprevious one. iOS 11 make drag and drop really useful, someone can drag anddrop and image into an email. Fig. 5. iOS 11 operating system.iOS operating system due to its stability andfunctionality make iPhone market successful in the world. Google Android is thecompetitor market of iOS in the world. iOS operating system as compared to Androidis very different because both of the operating system and the devices isdeveloped by the same company, Apple.
iOS operating system cannot be installand run on different machines, because of no license issued by the companyApple to install the iOS operating system on devices that has not manufacturedby Apple. For iOS developer there are simulators on the market. iOS operatorsystem has four levels of abstraction:· iOS operating system kernel· Core services level.· Media level.· User interface level.Due to being closed source, there are not so muchinformation available about iOS operating system. And so that there is no chartavailable to represent iOS operating system architecture.
According to CocoaTouch, a UI framework, which is developed for the user to build applications torun on iOS is:Core operating system level contains the kernel of thesystem, series of devices drivers, file manager etc. Core level of the iOS iscloset level to the hardware with a UNIX kernel. Which is developed using clanguage. iOS operating system is kernel is a core of Darwin and which iscalled XNU. iOS operating system version start from 1.0.
The Core Serviceslevel is the next upper level of the framework. The core services layer is developed in objectoriented, but the core level layer was developed in structure programming usingc language. Core Services provide the functionality of handling interactionwith network, administration and management of contact and other options. Thesefunction provide the way of handling hardware features of devices such as GPS,Gyroscope, accelerometer and compass etc. The third layer of the framework isMedia Level which is used for multimedia related functionalities. Fourth and tolevel layer of the framework provide UI layer, which is used to developedinterface for the user to interact with the application.
Fig. 6. Cocoa touch, an abstraction of iOS operating system.Cocoa Touch provide user interface of iOS operating systemfor the developer. This interface framework is used by developer whendeveloping application.
Cocoa touch interface framework is fullyobject-oriented. It enables developer to write an application for iOS operatingsystem. It also provide infrastructure support for multitasking, touch,notifications. The main development language used to developed application foriOS is objective-c language and Swift.
Swift was developed by Apple in 2014 foriOS operating system and swift is compiled programming language. App Store is the only platform for iOS application, onselling of application through app store developer will receive 70% of the appand 30% go to Apple. App store is the largest online store in the world for iOSoperating system applications. App Store can be used by only Apple devices. iOSapplication is developed using objective-c and swift, both are compiledlanguage, and so iOS operating system is not needed to use virtual machine.
TABLEII. Comparison table of os services offered by android andios Android and iOS comparison Android 8.1.0 Oreo iOS 11 Application Store Google Play App Store User interface Leanback Cocoa Touch Web Browser Chorme Webkit2 3D Graphic OpenGL Metal Programming Language Java Objectiv-C/Swift Virtual Machine None None IV. ConclusionsThe smartphone operating systems evaluated here offerseveral advantages. These operating system have built in application such asweb browser. And these operating system provide framework to developapplication for these platform. These operating system provide a directmechanism to updates application from their application store.
This paper point out the major operating system forsmartphone: iOS and Android. These operating system performed advancedoperation like multitasking etc. Both the operating system has numerousfunctions. In term of usage both the operating system have about similar appstore. Android operating system has the market share of around 70% in theworld. While Apple has the largest profit share. Therefore Apple iOS is firstin the chain of profitability.
Mostly each quality application are available inboth market. iOS is different from android because the final product produceand controlled by Apple own. And you cannot use iOS operating system indifferent device, due to no license for installation of the operating system onhardware devices developed by other than Apple. This is the main disadvantagesof iOS, because it is not portable for other devices produced by companiesother than Apple. References1 A.Silberschatz, G.
Gagne, P.B. Galvin, Operating System Concepts, 8thedition.2 W.Stallings, Operating Systems: Internationals and DesignPrinciples, 7th edition.3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocoa_Touch4 https://developer.apple.com/documentation/5 https://source.android.com/devices/tech/dalvik/6 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swift7 http://www.coderiddles.com/ios-platform/8 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/App_Store_(iOS)9 https://source.android.com/devices/10 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_version_history11 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Play12 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IOS_version_history13 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swift14 http://www.samsung.com/ro/article/android-2-2-os-explained/15 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_operating_system