Abstract— In this study, the faunaof Psocoptera was investigated in different regions of West part of Iran(Kermanshah, Hamedan and Kurdistan provinces) during 2012-2014. The specimenswere collected from the dead and dying leaves of trees, grasses and understones. Totally 14 species of Psocoptera belonging to 3 families and 4 generawere collected and identified from Kermanshah and Kordestan. The genus BelaphotroctesRoesler, 1943) with seven species Liposcelis brunneaMotschulsky 1852, Ectopsocus vachoni Badonnel 1954, Liposcelis edaphica Lienhard,1990; Liposcelis priesneri Enderlein, 1925; Liposcelis silvarum Kolbe,1888; Liposcelis sp. of group A and Liposcelis sp. of group D arenewly recorded for fauna of Iran. More ever all of reported species, Genera andfamilies by this study are reported for the first time in Kermanshah andKurdistan provinces.
. Keywords— Psocids fauna, Lepinotus, Belaphotroctes, Kermanshah. I. INTRODUCTIONPsocoptera,also known commonly as booklice, barklice or barkflies are one of theleast-known orders of small insects. They have a worldwide distribution andusually colonized on leaves, foliage and barks of ornamental trees, grasses andpalms. Some of them live in ground litter, under stones, nests of birds andmammals 1–2 and even in large quantities on stored product commoditiesunder moist condition.In thepast, Psocoptera were not considered serious pests and thought they feeding onalgae, fungi, lichen and organic detritus in nature. however several recentstudies clearly indicate that psocids should be considered as pests of economicimportance 3.
Some of them such as Liposcelis bostrychophila arecommon pests of stored products 4. feed on starch-based items like grainstoresor, some of them found amongst old books and feed upon the paste used in binding 5. The Psocids fauna of several countries in theworld was already overview in the recent years 2, 6–7 andabout 5700 species of Psocids have been described so far 8. Despite this extensive study, unfortunately, thepsocid fauna of Iran was poorly known, with only 13 species in 7 family wererecorded 9–14. Therefore it is expected that furtherresearch can add more species to the Psocoptera fauna of Iran..
II. Material and methodThisstudy was carried out during 2012-2015 in 13 county of Kermanshah provincealong with the Marivan and Malayer county (Kurdistan and Hamedan Provincesrespectively). The specimens were collected from a total of 16 sites ranging inelevation 1039 m a.s.l. to 2302 m a.
s.l. from the dead and dying leaves ofdifferent trees (Oak, Pine, Elm, Walnut, Apricot, Palm), grasses and understones TABLE I. The Psocids species were collected directly with entomologicalaspirators, hand or extracted by Berlese funnel. In total 90 specimens (89female and 1 male) were available for study. Most of these were dissected in 75% ethyl alcohol and identified by Prof. Charles Lienhard Natural, HistoryMuseum, Geneva, Switzerland.
Most of the material mentioned below is depositedin the Psocoptera collection, Natural History Museum, Geneva, Switzerland but asmall reference collection of some of the species mentioned is deposited at thedepartment of Entomology, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran.III. RESULTAtotally 14 species of Psocoptera belonging to 3 families and 4 genera werecollected and identified from Kermanshah and Kurdistan provinces by thisresearch. The information of collected species is presented in TABLE I.
Thegenus Belaphotroctes Roesler, 1943) with seven species Liposcelis brunnea Motschulsky 1852, Ectopsocus vachoni Badonnel1954, Liposcelis edaphica Lienhard, 1990; Liposcelis priesneri Enderlein,1925; Liposcelis silvarum Kolbe, 1888; Liposcelis sp. of group Aand Liposcelis sp. of group D are newly recorded for fauna of Iran. Moreever all of reported species, Genera and families by this study are reportedfor the first time in Kermanshah and Kurdistan provinces. Genus:Belaphotroctes Roesler Material examined: 1? collected inthe litter around Walnut trees (Juglansregia) Sare pol-e- Zahab County, Gerdehno village (N 34°43 E 045°48, elev.1039) in Kermanshah Province, Iran, May, 2012. Diagnosis: This genus ischaracrterized as: Tarsi 3-segmented. Hind tibia usually with at least 1 apicalspur.
Macropterous forms with compound eyes and 3 ocelli. Micropterous formswith small compound eyes. Apterous forms with at most 2 ommatidia, no ocelli,Fig.
1 (B). Maxillary palp with fourth segment ovoid, obviously wider TABLE ICollecting localities in the west part of Iran. Species province/county E N Elevation Habitat Lepinotus reticulatus Kurdistan /Marivan 35°30 046°25 1320 Oak jungle Kermanshah /Osmanevand 33°58 047°18 1913 Oak jungle Kermanshah /Ghazanchi 34°25 047°02 1330 Pine Kermanshah / Dalaho 35°52 043°06 1677 Walnut Kermanshah/Eslamabad-e-gharb 33°51 046°50 2302 Elm Kermanshah / Songhor 34°49 047°27 1696 Walnut Kermanshah /Harssin 34°16 047°28 1419 Apricot Kermanshah /Paveh 35°01 046°22 1554 Walnut Kermanshah/ Sar-e-pol-e- Zahab 34°43 045°48 1039 Walnut Kermanshah /Javanrood 34°46 046°25 1330 Grassland Ectopsocus vachoni Kermanshah / Kermanshah city 34°20 047°06 1337 Pine Ectopsocus vishnyakovae Kermanshah /Ghazanchi 34°25 047°02 1330 Pine Belaphotroctes sp Kermanshah/ Sar-e-pol-e- Zahab 34°43 045°48 1039 Walnut tree Liposcelis bostrychophila Kermanshah/Sar-e-pol-e- Zahab 34°24 046°00 1451 Oak jungle Kermanshah /Somar 33°53 045°39 1209 Palm Kermanshah / Kermanshah city 34°20 047°06 1337 Pine Liposcelis brunnea Kermanshah /Somar 33°53 045°39 1209 Palm Kermanshah/ Sanbali 34°25 047°17 1917 Oak jungle Liposcelis edaphica Kermanshah/Sar-e-pol-e- Zahab 34°24 046°00 1451 Oak jungle Liposcelis priesneri Kermanshah /Sahneh 34°27 047°40 1911 Walnut trees Liposcelis silvarum Kurdistan /Marivan 35°30 046°25 1320 Oak jungle Liposcelis sp.
of group A Kermanshah/ Kermanshah city 34°20 047°06 1337 Pine trees Liposcelis sp. of group D Kermanshah/ Kermanshah city 34°20 047°06 1337 Pine trees Liposcelis corrodens Hamedan /Malayer 34°19 048°51 1780 Walnut tree Liposcelis decolor Kermanshah /Sahneh 34°27 047°40 1911 Walnut trees Liposcelis keleri Kermanshah /Paveh 35°01 046°22 1911 Oak jungle than other segments but not as wide as long 15.Distribution: the differentspecies of Belaphotroctes have been recorded in USA, Jamaica,Mexico,Angola and Togo. It is the first record of this species in Iran. Genus: LiposcelisLiposcelis brunnea Motschulsky,1852 Material examined: 1?collected in the litter around Palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera) fromSomar county (N 33°53 E 045°39, elev. 1209) in Kermanshah Province, Iran,August 2013; 2? collected in the litter around oak trees (Quercusinfectoria) from Kermanshah city, Sanbali village (N 34°25 E 047°17, elev.1917) in Kermanshah Province, Iran, April, 2015. Diagnosis: the maincharacterize of this species as follows: Abdominal terga 3-4 not with aposterior membranous band (at least in the middle).
Posterior part of abdomendarkened (abdomen 8-10) Fig.1 (D).Distribution: This is a widelydistributed species; it has been found in the most countries such as Belgium,Germany, French, Finland, England, Italy, Greece, Austria, Cyprus, Poland,Spain, North Africa, China, Canada, Mexico and USA. It is the first report ofthis species from Iran. Genus: EctopsocusMcLachlan, 1899Ectopsocus vachoni Badonnel,1945 Material examined: 1? micropterous,collected in the litter around Pine trees (Pinus eldarica) fromKermanshah city (N 34°20 E 047°06, elev. 1337) in Kermanshah Province, Iran,Des 2013.
Diagnosis: Female is characterised as follows:dark brown; forewing short and rudiment (brachypterous form). Distribution: This species isrecorded from different countries such as: Morocco, Chile, France, GreatBritain, Greece, Spain, USA, Argentina, Mexico, Guatemala and Western Australia16–17. It is the firstreport of this species from Iran. Genus: LepinotusLiposcelis edaphica Lienhard,1990Material examined: one specimen (?), collected in thelitter around oak trees (Q.
infectoria) from Sare pol-e- Zahab County,Patagh village (N 34°24 E 046°00, elev. 1451) in Kermanshah Province, Iran,September 2013. Leg. M.
Kahrarian. Distribution: inEurope and Asia Countries such as Greece and China 6. It is the first recordof this species in Iran. Liposcelis priesneri Enderlein,1925Material examined: One specimen (?), collected in thelitter around Walnut trees (J. regia) from Sahneh County, Derekehvillage (N 34°27 E 047°40, elev. 1911) in Kermanshah Province, Iran, April2014. Leg. M.
Kahrarian. Distribution:Albania, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, former Yugoslavia 6. It is the first recordof this species in Iran. Liposcelis silvarum (Kolbe,1888)Material examined: One specimen (?), collected in thelitter around oak trees (Q. infectoria) from Marivan county (N 35°30 E046°25, elev. 1320) in Kordestan Province, Iran, April 2016. Leg. M.
Kahrarian. Distribution:cosmopolitan, in Germany, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia,Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, former USSR, former Yugoslavia, Armenia, Mongolia,Morocco, Canary Islands, USA 6. It is the first record of this species inIran.