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In the future, some of the main
aims beyond 4G that need to be addressed are reduced latency, energy efficiency
and robustness. To achieve these requirements, severe improvements need to be
accomplished in cellular network architecture. This paper briefly introduces
and reviews the fifth generation (5G) cellular network system and architecture.
This paper will focus on one component of 5G technology, known as Massive MIMO,
along with its advantages and challenges.

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Mobile technology is going
through fast changes and wireless mobile communication system has become more
popular.  5G technology is a term that
has not been officially defined yet, but is still receiving heaps of attention
in the media (Sutton and Tafazolli, 2017). It can be simply described as the
fifth generation of cellular networking (Gartenberg, 2017).  The uprising of mobile communications is
described in generations which go from 1G- first Generation to 5G -the fifth generation
(Ravikumar and Sankar, 2017). Currently, a new fifth generation of mobile
networks is expected to be installed by 2020 (Jungnickel, Manolakis and Zirwas,
2014). Great amount of research is being carried out today in order to provide
the 5G vision of the future by advancing candidate technologies, in the UK and
elsewhere (Sutton and Tafazolli, 2017).   The fifth generation which is built on 4G
technologies is believed to be the future wireless communication system in delivering
wireless mobile multimedia internet networks which can be entirely wireless
communication without restriction (Ravikumar and
Sankar, 2017).  The upcoming 5G
mobile technology advanced features will allow many everyday problems to be
potentially solved.  It is not apparent
which technologies will benefit 5G the most in the long term, however a few
preferences have emerged (Ravikumar and Sankar, 2017).

Overview of 5G systems

spectral bandwidth per frequency channel is to expected to be delivered along
with new and much varied frequency bands by 5G technology than the previous
generation (tutorialspoint, n.d.). Significant increase in peak bit rate have been
shown by the previous generations of mobile technologies (tutorialspoint, n.d.).
Larger number of supporting devices, higher reliability of communications,
better connectivity regardless of which geographic locality one is in, high
system spectral efficiency and many others are the advanced features of 5G on
top of the increase in bit rate (tutorialspoint, n.d.).   These advances make the upcoming revolution
of mobile technology different from the previous generation, especially 4G.

The network elements and which
each terminal has a unique Radio Access Technology (RAT) (Tudzarov and Janevsk,
2011).  For the outside internet world,
each of the radio access technologies is counted as the link.  The IP technology is created to make sure necessary
control data for appropriate routing of IP packets associated to specific
application connections is delivered.  Furthermore,
to make sure accessible routing of packets are managed in agreement with the
given policies of the user (Tudzarov and Janevsk, 2011; Ravikumar and Sankar,

The success of 5G networks will
depend on the implementation of a number of new technologies. These will allow
the benefits of 5G to be fully noticeable, benefiting from its capability to
use a wide range of bandwidths and high data rates, amongst others things. The
new main technology components are new spectrum, massive MIMO, network slicing,
multi-connectivity and in-build support for cloud implementation and edge computing
(nokia, 2017). 

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