Abstract: Constructiondelay is often the result of many factors have affected the constructionschedule either related to contractors, subcontractors, or project owners.Therefore Delays is one of the most phenomenal issue within public projectsaround the world but the problem is as a chronic in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia asresult a huge public funds are lost every year Accordingly Delays havesignificant negative effect on economic and social status of KSA citizen.Although much researches have reported the factors affecting in constructionprojects schedule in KSA by conducting a survey, but still the delay is endemicin KSA. Literature review demonstrated and explored the delays that outcomefrom related literature review on public construction project delays, in orderto explore and identify the major factors of delays in KSA. Also to capitalizethe management tools to be as guidelines and the ultimate solution of thesefactors. Literature review identified the delays in construction projects, suchas Weather effects, Poor qualifications, Lack of implementing projectmanagement tools, Lacking planning and scheduling of project by contractors,Skillsets and experience of the staff of the contractors, Delays in progresspayments by the owner, Selecting the contracts based on the lowest bidder andChange orders, before all above, classification of delay’s factors and theireffect were identified. 1. Introduction Construction delay is often the result of manyfactors have affected the construction schedule either related to contractors,subcontractors, or project owners.
“Delays are time overrun either beyondcompletion date specified in a contract, or beyond the date that parties agreeupon for delivery of a project.” Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006),”the most phenomenalissue that could be occurred in aconstruction project is delays and the massive of these significant effect ofthese delays vary considerably from project to project” Obodoh D. and Chikasi bodoh(2016). According to Alotaibi, Sutrisna,and Chong (2016), Since 80’s Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is facing this phenomenal”delaying in construction projects”, as (Zain Al-Abidien, 1983) reported thatdelayed projects accounted for 70% of projects undertaken by the Ministry ofHousing and Public Works). Al-Sultan (1987) made a survey to study the performanceof construction projects in KSA from time aspect as result, 70% of constructionprojects were on time overrun (Al-Sultan, 1987). Although much surveys havebeen conducted, still the delay is considerate as a cornice issue in KSA. Delaysare often occur due to contractor’s related effect, subcontractors, or projectowners.
Accordingly the construction schedule from the planning phasepassing through design, execution phase till the completion is becoming a greatconcern in KSA projects. Hence thispaper aims to· Demonstrating types of delay and its effects · Explore and identify the major factors causing schedule delay in public project construction · Capitalize the management tools to be as guidelines and theultimate solution of this factors 2. Literature review 2.1 Type of delaysConstructiondelays could be categorized based on the proposed by El-Saadi (1998) categorizeddelay in four major groups Critical or Non critical Excusable or Non Excusable Compensableor Non Compensable Concurrent or on concurrent. As well as Alkaas S., MazerolleM. and Harris F.
(1996) and Ahmed S.M. : categorized them as the following; ExcusableDelays, Excusable compensable delays, Excusable non-compensable delays and non-excusabledelays Concurrent delays. For more clarification, Excusable Delays happensbecause of occasions which are outside the control of contractual worker likesubstantial downpours, storms, strikes, terminate, customer recommendedchanges, varying site conditions, change of government strategy or theirmediation, partner intercession and so on.
While Excusable compensable delays asname proposes passable compensable deferrals are those in which temporaryworker is entitled for additional installment (remuneration) i.e. money relatedcompensation and time augmentation also. Yet, choice that a postponement iscompensable or non-compensable is taken according to contract amongst customerand temporary worker. Cataclysmic events or a few reasons which are notconsidered. Case of such postponement could be that customer doesn’t enableaccess to site even after notice to continue is given; other such defers whichare because of customer are compensable. On opposite side, Excusable non-compensabledelays are such delays are such where all parties are not accountable fordelay. Under such circumstances where only the solution is to extend the timeand no compensation.
Such delays include act of God. 2.2 Effectsof DelaysAconstruction project is generally recognized as effective when the point of theundertaking is accomplished as far as foreordained goals that are chieflyfinished the task on time, inside spending plan and indicated quality as perthe details and agreeable to partners. A standout amongst the most vital issuesthat may emerge in the construction project is delays and the size of thesepostponements change from project to other project.
As indicated by deferclasses that were contractor related, client related, consultant related, laborrelated and external related, (Murali Sambasivam) revealed the six majoreffects of delay that were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration,total abandonment, and litigation. Figure 1: Fish-Bone Diagramof six effects of the construction delays based on (Murali Sambasivam) study. 2.2.1The six major effects of delay Time OverrunMuraliet al., (2007) and Aibinu and Jagboro (2002) They identified time overrun asone of the major effects of delay.
And claimed that contractor related factorsand client related factors such as Inadequate or inactive skills planning andscheduling from contractor side, or subcontractors, or project owners relatedeffects, all have impact on time overrun. Cost overrun According to study showed by Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K.Skamris; Buhl, Søren L. (2002). Many real construction projects have broughtabout cost invades; cost gauges used to choose whether imperativetransportation foundation ought to be manufactured can deceive horribly andmethodically. Late works by Ahiaga-Dagbui and Smith recommends a reconsider ofwhat is customarily alluded to as invades in construction. They endeavor toinfluence a refinement between the regularly conflated reasons for developmentto cost underestimation and inevitable cost overwhelms Disputes Disputes is one of the delay effect and it causes of change orderswhere lead to claim, there for the changes must goes through a process asdefined by TURKI ALMUBADAL.
Which are Evaluation,estimation and negotiation in order to sustain the relation between theparties, otherwise may all the project will be suspended ArbitrationThereare two fundamental techniques to determine disputes in our legitimateframework: prosecution in the court framework and arbitration before anonpartisan individual or board, picked by the gatherings to hear and decidethe debate. As of late, more constructions debate are being submitted toarbitration, where the arbitration are frequently more acquainted with thedevelopment procedure and development related issues, than judges. Murali etal.
, (2007)Litigation whenthe delays caused by client related, contract related, labor related, externalrelated factors and contract relationship related factors for example, delay ininstallment for finished works, issues with site conditions and less of worksupply where in the end rise the debate to be settled by the suit procedure.The gatherings engaged with the construction projects use litigation as a lastother option to settle the debate. Murali et al., (2007) Total AbandonmentThemost basic unfriendly impact of postponements in construction projects is abandonmentthat could be impermanent or in more regrettable condition for perpetual span.
The significant reasons for customer related, advisor related, temporary workerrelated and outer related may prompt extend abandonment that will promptdeferrals in construction projects. Abedi, M., Fathi, M.
S. & Mohammad, M.F. (2011) 3. Construction Delays in KSAThe delay is a key issue in the construction industry all aroundand the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) isn’t a special case. The most recentinsights demonstrate that roughly 70% projects in KSA have been deferred in theprevious decade. Thus, the construction projects in KSA are confronting anenormous money related misfortune, a bargain in quality, and long holding uptimes to operate the projects for public services. (Abdullah Albogamy, DarrenScott2 , and Nashwan Dawood)The solution project because development businesses is inaccordance with fulfilled the projects regarding epoch yet inside the estimatedbudget, so construction delays usually amplify undertaking charges (Sweis etal.
, 2007). The construction industry contributed 30 to 40% to the growth ofthe KSA economy (Cordsman, 2000) and the government of Saudi Arabia is presently investing heavy quantities within the constructionindustry. According to Statistical Year Books (2000), KSA Government hadinvested nearly $234 billion on construction projects during 1990 to 2000.Despite the big investment, projects are still facing delays because ofvariants factors that have high effects on the construction projects and aswell as project costs than originally estimated. A study conducted by Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006)reported that approximately 70% of all construction projects were scheduleextended due to many factors in construction projects in KSA. Similarly,Al-Ghafly and Al-Khalil (1995) reported that 45 out of 76 water and sewageprojects in the Eastern Province of KSA were also the schedule of constructionextended in the last ten years. Falqi (2004) has defined the construction delayas a ‘cankerworm’ that is destroying the whole phases of the construction inthe KSA. There were 56 main causes of delays outlined in Assaf et al (1995)study.
4. Causes of delay – the outcomeof previous studies. Falqi (2004), Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006), AlKharashi and Skitmore (2009) Albogamy et al. (2013), all the above studies havedone a comprehensive literature review and they occupied this field fully toidentify the major factors of delay as shown in figure 3, table 3 , figure 2and figure 5 respectively , hence any further survey might not add any value tothis filed unless for specified area or to insure if these factors are stillvalid with change of era. However the purpose of this part is to demonstrate andexplore the delay that reported from related literature review on publicconstruction project delays, in order to explore and identify the top majorfactors of delays in KSA, as shown in Table 1. Asillustrated by Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006).
Only one Factor of delay is common between all parties, which is”change orders by owner among execution phase in construction”. And onanother side, many causes are common between two parties, like the delaypayments process, poor site management and supervision by contractor ineffectiveplanning and scheduling by contractor, shortage of labors and difficulties infinancing by contractor.” Falqi(2004) has mentioned that “Assaf and Al-khalil (1995) define the primary causesof delay in a big construction projects and their relative importance. Theyfind that 56 causes of delay exist in Saudi construction projects and concludethat contractors, consultants, and owners normally claim the same on theimportance ranking of delay factors.
The owners claim the main important delayfactors were design errors, excessive bureaucracy in project-ownerorganization, and lack of labour and inadequate labour skills. Contractorsclaim the main important delay factors to be the delays in payment by theowner, preparation and approval of shop drawings, and design changes. onanother side the main important delay factors for the consultants therelationship between different subcontractor schedules, and cash problems andslow decision making by the owner. Al Kharashi and Skitmore (2009) reported that”Finance problems are a real phenomenal, as illustrated by the results in thestudy.
These are related to the lack of finances, delay in progress of paymentsby the owners, non-payments. This could be due to the low level of underfundingby the Saudi Ministry of Finance. Moreover, many departments should to re-check each contractor’s payment. Quite often any extend in payment process hasa permanently affecting on construction projects in KSA for the last threedecades.
For instance, a number of researchers (Al-Mudlej 1984; Al-Hazmi 1987;Al-Subaie 1987; Al-Khalil and Al-Ghafly 1999; Al-Sedairy 2001) found the delay inpayments process or non-payment to contractors in Saudi Arabia to have becomethe main factors of delay of public projects. This issue is also has reportedcomprehensively by Arain et al. (2006) and Assaf et al. (1999), among others,whom strain and stress the Priority of sustain and maintain the contractors’ financial situation. AbdullahAlbogamy the most influencing factor among 11 delay factors related to theconsultants was delay in approval of shop drawings. In addition, non-stable ofdesign, poor and inadequate qualification in supervisor vision , documentation problem, and these were thenext four crucial issues that result in delaying the construction projects inKSA. moreover, according to the consultants, poor communication, coordination and design errors by the consultantengineer have low effectiveness in delaying the projects and according toAlbogamy study the top 10 major factorscausing delays are: Low performance of the lowest bidder contractor in theGovernment Tendering system, delays in sub-contractors work, poorqualification, skills and experience of the contractor’s technical staff, poorplanning and scheduling of the project by the contractor, delay in progresspayments by the owner, shortage of qualified engineers, delay in preparation ofshop drawings , cash flow problems faced by the contractor, inadequate earlyplanning of the project, and non-utilization of professional constructioncontractual management. Respectively.
5. Researchmethodology The major Delays Causes based on related literature review 1 non-utilization of professional construction contractual management 2 inadequate early planning of the project 3 Poor qualification, skills and experience of the contractors’ staff 4 Delay in progress payment by the client 5 Changes during construction (change orders, non-stable of design .etc 6 Slowness in decision making by Owner 7 Poor communication and coordination between construction parties 8 Assigning contracts to the lowest bidder without regards to qualification 9 Delay in approving major changes in the scope of work by consultant Table 1 The major Delays Causes based on related literature review The research methodologycombined the related comprehensive literature review were done by Falqi (2004),Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006), Al Kharashi and Skitmore (2009) Albogamy et al.(2013), then list delay factors were categorized in their literature reviews aslong as they have occupied this filed well, and after listing those factors asshown in Table 1, management tools will be illustrated and linked with major factorsto be as suggested solution to show the capability of these tools where can beas the ultimate solution for the major factors of delay in construction projectin KSA 6. Project ManagementMethodologiesThe past project management tools and methodologiesevolved from a less complex reality of smaller, easy to be controlled projects.However, in this coming days construction projects are often larger and morecomplex and involve significantly greater risk comparing with the perviousprojects. Craig Borysowich(2010).
Therefore modern management tools are highly required to be used besidethe traditional methodologies as long as KSA in frontof a big transformation in project construction as vision 2030 PRINCE2PRINCE2developed for Projects in Controlled Environments. It’s a tool for managingprojects used by the UK government and developed by considering theproduct-based planning approach. In PRINCE2, a critical level activities likesetting the resource allocation and the business justification are owned by astructured project board while a project manager focusing on day-to-dayactivities and the lower level, such asscheduling. This methodology provide to teams greater ability to mitigate riskeffectively and controlling of resources.
Wrike (2017)PRiSMPRiSMstands for Projects Integrating Sustainable Methods and is a project managementmethodology that is aimed at managing change while incorporating environmentalsustainability into its processes. The goal with PRiSM is to complete projects whilereducing a company’s negative environmental and social impact. It is, quiteliterally, green project management. Wrike (2017) Scrum Scrumis a popular Agile framework cause it is easy to use, as well as it solves alot of issue that software engineers have struggled previously such as inflexible project plans, convoluted improvement cycles, delayedproduction. Wrike (2017) 7.
Capitalize the management tools in thephenomenal of construction delayLiked the management tools with delay factorshave referred earlier by (Alotaibi, Sutrisna, and Chong) as shown if figure 5 butwith traditional management methodologies only and will be illustrated withboth the traditional and modern as shown in table 2, these tools might to behelpful to implement the recommendations were wrote by Assaf and Al-Hejji(2006) for all parties. Table2 mapping of major factors of delays inKSA against PM process and tools Major factors PM process PM methodologies & tools non-utilization of professional construction contractual management Project Integration Management PRINCE2 inadequate early planning of the project Project Scope Management PRiSM Poor qualification, skills and experience of the contractors’ staff Project Time Management Scrum Delay in progress payment by the client Project Cost Management WBS Changes during construction Project Quality Management PERT Slowness in decision making by Owner Project Risk Management EVM Poor communication and coordination between construction parties Project HR Management Project Communication Management Performance report Assigning contracts to the lowest bidder without regards to qualification Project Procurements Management Risk register Delay in approving major changes in the scope of work by consultant Project Stakeholders Management 8. Conclusion and Further ResearchConstructiondelay is often the result of many factors have affected the construction scheduleeither related to contractors, subcontractors, or project owners. ThereforeDelays is one of the most phenomenal issue within public projects around theworld but the problem is as a chronic in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as result ahuge public funds are lost every year Accordingly Delays have significantnegative effect on economic and social status of KSA citizenAconstruction project is generally recognized as effective when the point of theundertaking is accomplished as far as foreordained goals that are chieflyfinished the task on time, although much researches have reported the factorsaffecting in construction projects schedule in KSA by conducting a survey, butstill the delay is endemic in KSA Muchstudies have done a comprehensive literature review and they occupied thisfield fully to identify the major factors of delay, hence any further surveymight not add any value to this filed unless for specified area or to insure ifthese factors are still valid with change of eraAccordinglyfurther study in howparties are implementing the PM techniques, identifying the gabs and approachguidelines to fill the gabs, will be a great contribution in this filed. 9.