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Abstract:

 

Construction
delay is often the result of many factors have affected the construction
schedule either related to contractors, subcontractors, or project owners.
Therefore Delays is one of the most phenomenal issue within public projects
around the world but the problem is as a chronic in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as
result a huge public funds are lost every year Accordingly Delays have
significant negative effect on economic and social status of KSA citizen.
Although much researches have reported the factors affecting in construction
projects schedule in KSA by conducting a survey, but still the delay is endemic
in KSA. Literature review demonstrated and explored the delays that outcome
from related literature review on public construction project delays, in order
to explore and identify the major factors of delays in KSA. Also to capitalize
the management tools to be as guidelines and the ultimate solution of these
factors. Literature review identified the delays in construction projects, such
as Weather effects, Poor qualifications, Lack of implementing project
management tools, Lacking planning and scheduling of project by contractors,
Skillsets and experience of the staff of the contractors, Delays in progress
payments by the owner, Selecting the contracts based on the lowest bidder and
Change orders, before all above, classification of delay’s factors and their
effect were identified.

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1.    
Introduction

Construction delay is often the result of many
factors have affected the construction schedule either related to contractors,
subcontractors, or project owners. “Delays are time overrun either beyond
completion date specified in a contract, or beyond the date that parties agree
upon for delivery of a project.” Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006),”the most phenomenal
issue that could be occurred  in a
construction project is delays and the massive of these significant effect of
these delays vary considerably from project to project” Obodoh D. and Chikasi  bodoh(2016). According to Alotaibi, Sutrisna,
and Chong (2016), Since 80’s Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is facing this phenomenal
“delaying in construction projects”, as (Zain Al-Abidien, 1983) reported that
delayed projects accounted for 70% of projects undertaken by the Ministry of
Housing and Public Works). Al-Sultan (1987) made a survey to study the performance
of construction projects in KSA from time aspect as result, 70% of construction
projects were on time overrun (Al-Sultan, 1987). Although much surveys have
been conducted, still the delay is considerate as a cornice issue in KSA. Delays
are often occur due to contractor’s related effect, subcontractors, or project
owners. Accordingly the construction schedule from the planning phase
passing through design, execution phase till the completion is becoming a great
concern in KSA projects.  Hence this
paper aims to

·       
Demonstrating types of delay and its effects 

·       
Explore and identify the major factors causing schedule delay in public project construction 

·       
Capitalize the management tools to be as guidelines and the
ultimate solution of this factors

 

2.     Literature review

            2.1      Type of delays

Construction
delays could be categorized based on the proposed by El-Saadi (1998) categorized
delay in four major groups Critical or Non critical Excusable or Non Excusable Compensable
or Non Compensable Concurrent or on concurrent. As well as Alkaas S., Mazerolle
M. and Harris F. (1996) and Ahmed S.M. : categorized them as the following; Excusable
Delays, Excusable compensable delays, Excusable non-compensable delays and non-excusable
delays Concurrent delays. For more clarification, Excusable Delays happens
because of occasions which are outside the control of contractual worker like
substantial downpours, storms, strikes, terminate, customer recommended
changes, varying site conditions, change of government strategy or their
mediation, partner intercession and so on. While Excusable compensable delays as
name proposes passable compensable deferrals are those in which temporary
worker is entitled for additional installment (remuneration) i.e. money related
compensation and time augmentation also. Yet, choice that a postponement is
compensable or non-compensable is taken according to contract amongst customer
and temporary worker. Cataclysmic events or a few reasons which are not
considered. Case of such postponement could be that customer doesn’t enable
access to site even after notice to continue is given; other such defers which
are because of customer are compensable. On opposite side, Excusable non-compensable
delays are such delays are such where all parties are not accountable for
delay. Under such circumstances where only the solution is to extend the time
and no compensation. Such delays include act of God.

 2.2     Effects
of Delays

A
construction project is generally recognized as effective when the point of the
undertaking is accomplished as far as foreordained goals that are chiefly
finished the task on time, inside spending plan and indicated quality as per
the details and agreeable to partners. A standout amongst the most vital issues
that may emerge in the construction project is delays and the size of these
postponements change from project to other project. As indicated by defer
classes that were contractor related, client related, consultant related, labor
related and external related, (Murali Sambasivam) revealed the six major
effects of delay that were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration,
total abandonment, and litigation.

 

Figure 1: Fish-Bone Diagram
of six effects of the construction delays based on (Murali Sambasivam) study.

 

 

 

2.2.1
The six major effects of delay

 Time Overrun

Murali
et al., (2007) and Aibinu and Jagboro (2002) They identified time overrun as
one of the major effects of delay. And claimed that contractor related factors
and client related factors such as Inadequate or inactive skills planning and
scheduling from contractor side, or subcontractors, or project owners related
effects, all have impact on time overrun.

Cost overrun

According to study showed by Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K.
Skamris; Buhl, Søren L. (2002). Many real construction projects have brought
about cost invades; cost gauges used to choose whether imperative
transportation foundation ought to be manufactured can deceive horribly and
methodically. Late works by Ahiaga-Dagbui and Smith recommends a reconsider of
what is customarily alluded to as invades in construction. They endeavor to
influence a refinement between the regularly conflated reasons for development
to cost underestimation and inevitable cost overwhelms

 

Disputes

 

Disputes is one of the delay effect and it causes of change orders
where lead to claim, there for the changes must goes through a process as
defined by  TURKI ALMUBADAL. Which are Evaluation,
estimation and negotiation in order to sustain the relation between the
parties, otherwise may all the project will be suspended 

 

Arbitration

There
are two fundamental techniques to determine disputes in our legitimate
framework: prosecution in the court framework and arbitration before a
nonpartisan individual or board, picked by the gatherings to hear and decide
the debate. As of late, more constructions debate are being submitted to
arbitration, where the arbitration are frequently more acquainted with the
development procedure and development related issues, than judges. Murali et
al., (2007)

Litigation

when
the delays caused by client related, contract related, labor related, external
related factors and contract relationship related factors for example, delay in
installment for finished works, issues with site conditions and less of work
supply where in the end rise the debate to be settled by the suit procedure.
The gatherings engaged with the construction projects use litigation as a last
other option to settle the debate. Murali et al., (2007)

 

Total Abandonment

The
most basic unfriendly impact of postponements in construction projects is abandonment
that could be impermanent or in more regrettable condition for perpetual span.
The significant reasons for customer related, advisor related, temporary worker
related and outer related may prompt extend abandonment that will prompt
deferrals in construction projects. Abedi, M., Fathi, M. S. & Mohammad, M.
F. (2011)

 

3.     Construction Delays in KSA

The delay is a key issue in the construction industry all around
and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) isn’t a special case. The most recent
insights demonstrate that roughly 70% projects in KSA have been deferred in the
previous decade. Thus, the construction projects in KSA are confronting an
enormous money related misfortune, a bargain in quality, and long holding up
times to operate the projects for public services. (Abdullah Albogamy, Darren
Scott2 , and Nashwan Dawood)

The solution project because development businesses is in
accordance with fulfilled the projects regarding epoch yet inside the estimated
budget, so construction delays usually amplify undertaking charges (Sweis et
al., 2007). The construction industry contributed 30 to 40% to the growth of
the KSA economy (Cordsman, 2000) and the government of Saudi Arabia is presently investing heavy quantities within the construction
industry. According to Statistical Year Books (2000), KSA Government had
invested nearly $234 billion on construction projects during 1990 to 2000.
Despite the big investment, projects are still facing delays because of
variants factors that have high effects on the construction projects and as
well as project costs than originally estimated.  A study conducted by Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006)
reported that approximately 70% of all construction projects were schedule
extended due to many factors in construction projects in KSA. Similarly,
Al-Ghafly and Al-Khalil (1995) reported that 45 out of 76 water and sewage
projects in the Eastern Province of KSA were also the schedule of construction
extended in the last ten years. Falqi (2004) has defined the construction delay
as a ‘cankerworm’ that is destroying the whole phases of the construction in
the KSA. There were 56 main causes of delays outlined in Assaf et al (1995)
study.

4.     Causes of delay – the outcome
of previous studies.

 Falqi (2004), Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006), Al
Kharashi and Skitmore (2009) Albogamy et al. (2013), all the above studies have
done a comprehensive literature review and they occupied this field fully to
identify the major factors of delay as shown in figure 3, table 3 , figure 2
and figure 5 respectively , hence any further survey might not add any value to
this filed unless for specified area or to insure if these factors are still
valid with change of era. However the purpose of this part is to demonstrate and
explore the delay that reported from related literature review on public
construction project delays, in order to explore and identify the top major
factors of delays in KSA, as shown in Table 1.

As
illustrated by Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006). 
Only one Factor of delay is common between all parties, which is
”change orders by owner among execution phase in construction”. And on
another side, many causes are common between two parties, like the delay
payments process, poor site management and supervision by contractor ineffective
planning and scheduling by contractor, shortage of labors and difficulties in
financing by contractor.”

Falqi
(2004) has mentioned that “Assaf and Al-khalil (1995) define the primary causes
of delay in a big construction projects and their relative importance. They
find that 56 causes of delay exist in Saudi construction projects and conclude
that contractors, consultants, and owners normally claim the same on the
importance ranking of delay factors. The owners claim the main important delay
factors were design errors, excessive bureaucracy in project-owner
organization, and lack of labour and inadequate labour skills. Contractors
claim the main important delay factors to be the delays in payment by the
owner, preparation and approval of shop drawings, and design changes. on
another side the main important delay factors for the consultants the
relationship between different subcontractor schedules, and cash problems and
slow decision making by the owner.

 

Al Kharashi and Skitmore (2009) reported that
“Finance problems are a real phenomenal, as illustrated by the results in the
study. These are related to the lack of finances, delay in progress of payments
by the owners, non-payments. This could be due to the low level of underfunding
by the Saudi Ministry of Finance. Moreover, many departments should to re-
check each contractor’s payment. Quite often any extend in payment process has
a permanently affecting on construction projects in KSA for the last three
decades. For instance, a number of researchers (Al-Mudlej 1984; Al-Hazmi 1987;
Al-Subaie 1987; Al-Khalil and Al-Ghafly 1999; Al-Sedairy 2001) found the delay in
payments process or non-payment to contractors in Saudi Arabia to have become
the main factors of delay of public projects. This issue is also has reported
comprehensively by Arain et al. (2006) and Assaf et al. (1999), among others,
whom strain and stress the Priority of sustain and maintain  the contractors’ financial situation.

 

Abdullah
Albogamy the most influencing factor among 11 delay factors related to the
consultants was delay in approval of shop drawings. In addition, non-stable of
design, poor and inadequate qualification in supervisor vision  , documentation problem, and these were the
next four crucial issues that result in delaying the construction projects in
KSA. moreover, according to the consultants, 
poor communication, coordination and design errors by the consultant
engineer have low effectiveness in delaying the projects and according to
Albogamy study the  top 10 major factors
causing delays are: Low performance of the lowest bidder contractor in the
Government Tendering system, delays in sub-contractors work, poor
qualification, skills and experience of the contractor’s technical staff, poor
planning and scheduling of the project by the contractor, delay in progress
payments by the owner, shortage of qualified engineers, delay in preparation of
shop drawings , cash flow problems faced by the contractor, inadequate early
planning of the project, and non-utilization of professional construction
contractual management. Respectively.

5.     
 Research
methodology

 

The major Delays Causes based on related literature review

1

non-utilization of professional construction contractual
management

2

inadequate
early planning of the project

3

Poor qualification, skills and experience of the contractors’
staff

4

Delay
in progress payment by the client

5

Changes during construction (change orders, non-stable of design
.etc

6

Slowness in decision making
by Owner

7

Poor
communication and coordination between construction parties

8

Assigning contracts to the
lowest bidder without regards to qualification

9

Delay
in approving major changes in the scope of work by consultant

Table 1 The major
Delays Causes based on related literature review

 The research methodology
combined the related comprehensive literature review were done by Falqi (2004),
Assaf and Al-Hejji (2006), Al Kharashi and Skitmore (2009) Albogamy et al.
(2013), then list delay factors were categorized in their literature reviews as
long as they have occupied this filed well, and after listing those factors as
shown in Table 1, management tools will be illustrated and linked with major factors
to be as suggested solution to show the capability of these tools where can be
as the ultimate solution for the major factors of delay in construction project
in KSA

 

6.     Project Management
Methodologies

The past project management tools and methodologies
evolved from a less complex reality of smaller, easy to be controlled projects.
However, in this coming days construction projects are often larger and more
complex and involve significantly greater risk comparing with the pervious
projects. Craig Borysowich
(2010). Therefore modern management tools are highly required to be used beside
the traditional methodologies as long as KSA in front
of a big transformation in project construction as vision 2030

PRINCE2

PRINCE2
developed for Projects in Controlled Environments. It’s a tool for managing
projects used by the UK government and developed by considering the
product-based planning approach. In PRINCE2, a critical level activities like
setting the resource allocation and the business justification are owned by a
structured project board while a project manager focusing on day-to-day
activities and the lower level,  such as
scheduling. This methodology provide to teams greater ability to mitigate risk
effectively and controlling of resources. 
Wrike (2017)

PRiSM

PRiSM
stands for Projects Integrating Sustainable Methods and is a project management
methodology that is aimed at managing change while incorporating environmental
sustainability into its processes. The goal with PRiSM is to complete projects while
reducing a company’s negative environmental and social impact. It is, quite
literally, green project management. Wrike (2017)

 

Scrum

Scrum
is a popular Agile framework cause it is easy to use, as well as it solves a
lot of issue that software engineers have struggled previously  such as 
inflexible project plans, convoluted improvement cycles, delayed
production. Wrike (2017)

 

7.    
Capitalize the management tools in the
phenomenal of construction delay

Liked the management tools with delay factors
have referred earlier by (Alotaibi, Sutrisna, and Chong) as shown if figure 5 but
with traditional management methodologies only and will be illustrated with
both the traditional and modern as shown in table 2, these tools might to be
helpful to implement the recommendations were wrote by Assaf and Al-Hejji
(2006) for all parties.

 

Table
2  mapping of major factors of delays in
KSA against PM process and tools

Major factors

 

PM process

 

PM methodologies & tools

non-utilization of professional
construction contractual management

Project Integration
Management

 

PRINCE2
 

inadequate
early planning of the project

Project Scope Management

 

PRiSM

Poor
qualification, skills and experience of the contractors’ staff

Project Time
Management

 

Scrum

Delay
in progress payment by the client

Project Cost
Management

 

WBS

Changes
during construction
 
 

Project Quality
Management

 

PERT

Slowness in decision making by Owner

Project Risk Management

 

EVM

Poor communication and coordination
between construction parties

Project HR Management
 
 
Project Communication
Management

 

Performance report

Assigning contracts to the lowest
bidder without regards to qualification

Project Procurements Management

 

 
 
Risk
register

Delay in approving major changes in the
scope of work by consultant

Project Stakeholders
Management

 

 

 

 

8.    
Conclusion and Further Research

Construction
delay is often the result of many factors have affected the construction schedule
either related to contractors, subcontractors, or project owners. Therefore
Delays is one of the most phenomenal issue within public projects around the
world but the problem is as a chronic in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as result a
huge public funds are lost every year Accordingly Delays have significant
negative effect on economic and social status of KSA citizen

A
construction project is generally recognized as effective when the point of the
undertaking is accomplished as far as foreordained goals that are chiefly
finished the task on time, although much researches have reported the factors
affecting in construction projects schedule in KSA by conducting a survey, but
still the delay is endemic in KSA

Much
studies have done a comprehensive literature review and they occupied this
field fully to identify the major factors of delay, hence any further survey
might not add any value to this filed unless for specified area or to insure if
these factors are still valid with change of era

Accordingly
further study in how
parties are implementing the PM techniques, identifying the gabs and approach
guidelines to fill the gabs, will be a great contribution in this filed.

 

9.     References 

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