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Abstract:  Shelf  life 
of  fish  cutlet 
prepared  from  marine water 
fish  Dhoma  were 
evaluated  on  the 
basis  of biochemical  and 
sensory  qualities  during 
frozen  storage. The  meat 
was  separated  from 
the  fish  and 
cutlet  was prepared  by 
following  standardized  recipe 
then  frozen  stored (-180C)  and 
subjected  to  biochemical 
and sensory evaluation at interval of fifteen days through the study.
Results indicated that the frozen cutlet was in acceptable condition up to 165
days at stored -180C. Biochemical parameters showed a rising trend
pH, peroxide value, free fatty acid and total volatile base-Nitrogen, during
the period of study. Scores for sensory parameters appearance, colour, taste,
odour and overall acceptability showed a decreasing trend.

Key Words: Biochemical
Changes, Fish Cutlets, Dhoma fish, Sensory Evaluation and Storage Study

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INTRODUCTION

The consumption of fish and seafood and their popularity has consistently  increased 
during  recent years  (Bochi 
et 
al.,  2008).
In recent  years, the increase  of  the
world’s  population  as 
well as  various  socioeconomic 
changes,  has caused to  an 
increase  of the consumer’s
preference  for  ready-to-eat 
foods. Cakes, crackers, 
burgers,  fish  fingers, 
marinated  products  made  from  fish 
or  other  seafood products are of the most preferred
ready-to-eat foods by consumers around the world and  many 
studies  have  been 
conducted  on  the production,  quality, 
and  stability  of these foods (Cakli et al., 2005).

Fish  mince  is 
used  for  the 
preparation  of  various products  such 
as  fish  fingers, 
cutlets,  sausages,  cakes, 
analog  products  and  certain
canned products (Reddy et al., 2012).

Battered and breaded product is convenience food valued greatly by the
consumers all over the world. The process 
of  coating  with 
batter  and  bread 
crumbs increases the bulk of the product, thereby reducing the
content  of  costly 
fish  and  thus 
reducing  the  cost product, 
coating  enhances  the 
appearance,  color, texture  and 
taste  of  food 
products  and  also 
the nutritional value of the product (Rathod et al., 2012).
The aim of this
study was to prepare fish cutlet from Dhoma fish meat and to investigate
storage characteristics viz., biochemical pH, peroxide value (PV), free fatty
acid (FFA) and total volatile base-Nitrogen (TVB-N) and sensory quality changes
during frozen storage.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

 Fresh Dhoma (Ottolithus  sp.)  procured
from  fish  market 
of  Ratnagiri. Fish samples were between
5.5 and 10.5 kg and transferred to processing hall under iced condition
and  then 
they  were  washed 
thoroughly  with  potable water then beheaded, gutted and again
washed meat was  separated  which 
yielded  39%  of 
meat  based  on total weight of fish.

Using standardised recipe the cutlets were prepared  (Pawar et
al., 2012). The  standardized  cutlet recipe 
included  100gm  cooked 
Dhoma fish meat,  3gm salt, 10 ml
oil, 5gm green chillies, 5gm coriander leaves, 
5gm  ginger,  5gm 
garlic,  25gm  onions, 
70gm  cooked potatoes, 0.3gm
pepper powder, 0.3gm clove powder, 0.2gm 
cinnamon  powder,  0.2gm 
turmeric  powder, 20gm bread
powder.

The standardized batter mix (Pagarkar et al., 2012) were 
prepared  using  77.5% 
refined  wheat  flour, 
9.7% corn  flour,  9.7% 
bengal  gram  flour, 
1.20%  salt,  0.47% sodium 
tri  polyphosphate  (STPP), 
0.47%  turmericpowder,  0.96% 
carboxy  methyl  cellulose 
(CMC)  which were  mixed 
with  water  in 
the  ratio  of 
1:2  and  was blended 
to  homogeneity.  After the 
batter  coating,  it was covered with bread crumbs, they were
flash fried at  180 0C   for 
30  sec.  later packed 
in  polypropylene pouches of 100gm
capacity and frozen stored at -18 0C.

Analysis:

Proximate  composition  viz., 
moisture,  crude protein, fats,
carbohydrate and ash of raw fish and fish cutlet on the initial day of
production and at the end of the 
storage  were  analysed according  to 
AOAC  (2005).  Biochemical and  sensory 
quality  was  assessed 
during storage study at 15 days interval.

 

Chemical quality:

The pH, free fatty acid values were determined as per AOAC (2005).  TVB-N contents  of  Dhoma
fish  cutlet was determined by the
procedure given by Beatty and Gibbons, (1937) using Conway micro-diffusion
units and results were expressed in terms of nitrogen mg/100g.

Sensory quality:

 Sensory quality of catla fish
cutlets were evaluat ed directly  by  10 
trained  panelists,  using 
a  nine  point hedonic 
scale  (1-dislike  extremely 
to  9-like  extremely) for product acceptability. 

Statistical Methods:

The  data  were 
analyzed  using  appropriate 
statistical  methods  (Snedecor 
and Cochran,  1967).  Using 
analysis  of  variance 
(ANOVA)  technique significant  difference 
between  the  means 
of  treatments  was 
found  out  and 
further subjected to least significant difference among or between the
treatments.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The  moisture,  crude 
protein,  fat  and 
ash  contents  in 
fresh  Dhoma  fish 
were 73.63%, 21.15%, 2.26% 
and  1.96%  respectively. 
Similarly,  with  slight 
variation  was reported  by  Khanolka,
(2005)  in  moisture 
(74.50-73.00%), crude 
protein  (20.62-21.00%),  fat  (2.49-2.50%)  and  ash  (1.24-2.50%) 
contents  in fresh  Dhoma 
and  Johnius  dussumeri 
respectively,  whereas  Ramchandran 
and Solankhi  (1988) reported  the moisture, 
crude  protein,  fat  and 
ash  contents  in 
fresh Otolithus sp. were 77.41, 16.02, 3.3 and 0.84% respectively.

The  proximate  composition 
of  Dhoma  fish 
cutlet  at  the  beginning  is 
shown  in (Table 1). The
percentage of  moisture  was 
67.40%,  crude  protein 14.86%, fat 15.43%, ash 2.31%. At the
end of the experiment, the Dhoma fish cutlet kept in storage at -180C
temperature showed slight variation in the proximate composition. The Dhoma fish
cutlet kept in storage had moisture, crude protein, fat, and ash content of 66.81,
13.35, 16.38, 3.46 % respectively. Ninan et
al., (2010)  reported  no variation 
in  fish  cutlet 
during  the  frozen 
storage.  Pandey and Kulkarni  (2007) 
reported  the decrease  in  the  moisture 
content  in  grass 
carp  cutlets  and 
fish  fingers  during 
the  frozen storage at -180C
for 6 months. Kamat (1999) reported  fish  cutlet 
prepared  from  bleached 
and unbleached fish meat content of moisture, protein, fat and  ash 
were  65.01,  12.06, 
6.31  and  1.39% 
and  60.21, 16.20,  14.32 
and  1.43%  respectively.

 

Table No 1 : Proximate composition of Dhoma fish
cutlet at the beginning and at the end of frozen storage study

Attribute

Stored cutlets

Initial (Days)

Final ( Days)

Moisture (%)

67.40

66.81

Crude Protein (%)

14.86

13.35

Fat (%)

15.43

16.38

Ash (%)

2.31

3.46

 

 Chemical
quality parameters

The change  in  pH 
of  fish  muscle 
is  usually  a 
good  index  for 
quality  assessment.  It is 
important determining of fish quality as texture of fish. The increase
in pH is  caused by the  enzymatic 
degradation of fish  muscle (Love,
1992 and  Vareltzis et al.,1997).  In  the 
present  study  cutlet 
showed  slightly  increased 
pH  from  6.20 
to  6.69 (Fig.1) during frozen
storage. Pawar (2011) reported the cutlet made from catla fish showed
increasing trend of pH from 6.50 to 6.79 when stored at -2 to -4°C.

Fig.  1: Changes in pH of Dhoma fish cutlet during
storage at -15 to -18°C

Changes in peroxide value (PV):

The  PV  value 
in  frozen  stored 
cutlet  increase  gradually 
from  initial  value 
of 2.1 to 4.7 and at the end of 120 days and further show gradually
decrease in PV from 4.1 to 3.7 (Fig. 2) meq. of O2/kg at the end of
180 days. Peroxide  value  of 
mackerel  mince  cutlet  prepared 
from  bleached  and unbleached surimi increased (Kamat, 1999)
gradually from an initial value of  2.8
and 3.4 to 30 and 40 meq of O2 /Kg at the end of 9 and 5 weeks
period of storage at -14°C respectively. Joseph et al., (1984) reported decreasing trend of peroxide value in both
flash fried and raw cutlets. The peroxide value of flash fried cutlets were
8.16 to 5.81, 8.16 to 1.59 and 8.16 to 4.50 meq of O2 /Kg and raw
cutlets were 9.5 to 6.23, 9.50 to 3.98 and 9.55 to 6.22 meq of O2
/Kg at 4°C, -8°C and -20°C respectively.

(Fig. 2): Changes in
peroxide value of Dhoma fish cutlet during frozen storage

 

Changes in free fatty acid (FFA):

In  the  present 
study,  Dhoma  fish 
cutlet  during  frozen 
storage  at -18°C  was shown 
increased  in  FFA 
from 1.15  to  2.09 
mg/100g  till  120th day  and 
then  onward started decreasing
1.88 to 1.6 mg/100g on 180th day (Fig. 3). Pawar (2011) also reported FFA in catla fish cutlet
during frozen storage at -18°C 
increase  gradually  from 
initial  value 0.95 to 2.12  mg/100g 
till  105th day  and then 
onward  stared decreasing  to 1.77 
mg/100 on 180th day. 
Joseph et al., (1984) reported
FFA content in flashed fried and raw cutlet in the range of 0.98 to 1.49 and
2.03 to 2.82  mg/100g respectively  at 
4°C.  Reddy et  al., (1992)  reported 
increasing FFA in fish finger developed from croaker and pink perch meat
up to 6th week and 10th week  respectively 
and  then  decreased 
slightly  up to  14th week  and 
remained  almost stable at -20°C.

(Fig.  3): Changes in free fatty acid (mg % oleic acid) of Dhoma fish cutlet during frozen storage

 

Changes in TVB-N (Total volatile base-Nitrogen):

TVB-N (Total volatile base-Nitrogen) is a commonly used chemical method
to determine spoilage of fish (Tokur et
al., 2004). TVB-N of Dhoma fish cutlet during frozen storage was increased
from 2.09 to 15.38  mg/100g  till 
150th  day  and 
then  onward  stared 
decreasing  from  15.1 
to  14.85 mg/100g  on  180th
day (Fig. 4). Pawar, (2011)  TVB-N  of catla 
fish  cutlet  stored 
in  chilled storage showed
increasing trend from 4.15 to 13.74 mg/100g also TVB-N of catla fish cutlet
during frozen storage was increased up to 15.06 mg/100g till 105th day and then
onward stared decreasing to 10.53 mg/100g on 180th day.

(Fig. 4): Changes in
TVB-N (mg/100g) of Dhoma fish cutlet during frozen storage

Changes in sensory quality characteristics:

The  result  of 
organoleptic  evaluation  of 
cutlet  kept  in 
storage  (-15  to -18°C) showed slight  decrease 
in  overall  acceptability in  of  the  Dhoma 
fish  cutlet  when storage 
period  increased  from 
0  to  180 
days.  The  cutlet 
kept  in  storage 
was  not  in acceptable 
condition  after  165 
days (Fig. 5).  This  may 
be  due  to  formation 
of  some  volatile low 
molecular  weight  compounds, 
lipid  oxidation  and 
protein  degradation  during chilled and frozen storage (Undeland
and Lingnert, 1999 and Pawar, (2011).

            Joseph
et 
al., (1984) reported  raw  and 
flash  fried  cutlets 
prepared  from  lizard fish, 
threadfin  bream, Jew  fish 
and  miscellaneous  fish 
among  that  lizard 
fish  cutlet showed highest
acceptability. The raw cutlet had storage life of 6 days, 11 weeks and 19 weeks
at 4°C, -8°C and -20°C respectively. The flash fried (FF) cutlets had shelf life
of  22 
weeks  at -20°C.  The  FF  cutlets 
were  superior  in 
organoleptic  quality compared to
raw cutlet during early stage of storage and at the end of storage both had almost  same 
rating.

Pawar, (2011)  reported  that 
organoleptic  score  of 
catla  fish  cutlet 
kept  in chilled  stored 
was  slightly  decrease 
in  overall  acceptability 
of  the  catla 
fish  cutlet from 0 to 18 days
during storage at -2 to -4°C and that catla fish cutlet kept in frozen stored
was not in acceptable condition after 150 days.

(Fig. 5): Sensory evaluation  of 
catla  fish  cutlet 
during frozen storage

 

 

CONCLUSION

The paper described quality changes of batter and bearded fish product
fish cutlet based on evaluation of biochemical parameters (pH,  PV, 
FFA  and  TVB-N) 
and sensory qualities on frozen storage. The rate of quality
deterioration  was  an 
accelerated  process  with 
the passage of storage time which was assessed by means of  biochemical 
parameters  and  sensory 
evaluation score.  The batter
and  bearded  fish 
product  fish  cutlet prepared following standardised recipe
from Dhoma, had a shelf life of 165 days.

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