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A major barrierto academic achievement which can MOU1 result in poor mental health is the lack of school attendance(GMOU2 oldstein, Little, & Akin-Little, 2003;Gottfried, 2009).

The consequences of absenteeism may be drop-out,poor morale, and it could eventually lead to an inability to support oneselfbecause of a low level of employment. Alcoholism, occupational difficulty andfuture criminality can be a repercussion of absenteeism. (Kearney, 2008).  Reading thelist from The Illinois State Board of Education (2010) on nine school factorsthat are related to absenteeism, prevention came to mind. I believe thesefactors can be a resource to use to intervention prevention. It is important touse this list as a tool and make steps towards providing smaller class sizeswhere teachers are able to build strong relationships with their students.

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Thiswould also allow teachers to differentiate properly for their students andprovide meaningful and relevant material to match the curriculum and identifystudents who are struggling while providing appropriate services. In myopinion, smaller class sizes is one change which as a trickle effect couldpositively influence six other factors to the absenteeism problem.  Mental disorders go far beyond only affecting thefunctioning of an individual, it can even have social and economicramifications. It can cause stigma, alienation, discrimination, emotionalsuffering and a diminished quality of life.

Families often take a toll when oneof the members is suffering from a mental disorder. Prevention is the best wayto lessen the burdens mental disorders cause. Promotion of mental health needsto take place in policy formation, legislation, decision-making, resourceallocation and the health-care system (World Health Organization, 2002).

Although prevention means “to keep something from happening”, MOU3 the World HealthOrganization (2002) can approach prevention with a tiered approach. Firstly auniversal approach, targeting the population as whole, then being moreselective with an emphasis on individuals or group who are more likely todeveloping a mental disorder. Thirdly, targeting individuals specifically athigh-risk of mental disorders. As part of prevention to target the generalpopulation there are examples for ways to help adults, children and mothersduring pregnancy. Prenatal and post-natal visits to assist with attachment andparenting skills, encouragement of breastfeeding, legislating the use ofhelmets to prevent head injury and different programs that target marriedcouples, expecting parents, widows, employees of at-risk occupations andpre-retires are a few of the prevention efforts that have been put in place(World Health Organization, 2002). MOU1A major problem here is that you have copied these 8 words directlyfrom the text. You need to paraphrase using your own words. I will not bereviewing the rest of this text for these errors today – but make sure youcheck the whole document.

 MOU2The punctuation should come at the end of the reference.  This error occurs multiple times in thedocument. Another problem is that this referenceis not the one listed in the course outline. It should be: (Little, Akin-Little,& Couperus, 2012). In your case you are referring to documents referencedin the article. That is not necessary. It will be easier for you if you justrefer to the original article.   If you do want to/need to cite an articlewithin an articule – you need to add the author names + as cited by Little,Akin-Little, & Couperus, 2012) : The OWL states:If you use a source thatwas cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase.

List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondarysource in the parentheses.Johnson argued that…(as cited in Smith, 2003, p.

102).Note: When citing materialin parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try tolocate the original material and cite the original source.

  MOU3Ifyou quote text you need to provide the reference immediately after and add thepage number as well. OWL states If you aredirectly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year ofpublication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by”p.”). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes theauthor’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.According to Jones (1998), “Students often haddifficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p.199).

 Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style”(p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?If the author is not namedin a signal phrase, place the author’s last name, the year of publication, andthe page number in parentheses after the quotation.She stated, “Students often had difficultyusing APA style” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer anexplanation as to why.Long quotationsPlace direct quotationsthat are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines,and omit quotation marks.

Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inchfrom the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.

Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of anysubsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should comeafter the closing punctuation mark.Jones’s (1998) study found the following:Students often had difficulty using APA style,especially when it was their first time citing sources.

 This difficultycould be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase astyle manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199) 

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