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A major barrier
to academic achievement which can MOU1 result in poor mental health is the lack of school attendance
(GMOU2 oldstein, Little, & Akin-Little, 2003;
Gottfried, 2009).

The consequences of absenteeism may be drop-out,
poor morale, and it could eventually lead to an inability to support oneself
because of a low level of employment. Alcoholism, occupational difficulty and
future criminality can be a repercussion of absenteeism. (Kearney, 2008).

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Reading the
list from The Illinois State Board of Education (2010) on nine school factors
that are related to absenteeism, prevention came to mind. I believe these
factors can be a resource to use to intervention prevention. It is important to
use this list as a tool and make steps towards providing smaller class sizes
where teachers are able to build strong relationships with their students. This
would also allow teachers to differentiate properly for their students and
provide meaningful and relevant material to match the curriculum and identify
students who are struggling while providing appropriate services. In my
opinion, smaller class sizes is one change which as a trickle effect could
positively influence six other factors to the absenteeism problem.


Mental disorders go far beyond only affecting the
functioning of an individual, it can even have social and economic
ramifications. It can cause stigma, alienation, discrimination, emotional
suffering and a diminished quality of life. Families often take a toll when one
of the members is suffering from a mental disorder. Prevention is the best way
to lessen the burdens mental disorders cause. Promotion of mental health needs
to take place in policy formation, legislation, decision-making, resource
allocation and the health-care system (World Health Organization, 2002).
Although prevention means “to keep something from happening”, MOU3 the World Health
Organization (2002) can approach prevention with a tiered approach. Firstly a
universal approach, targeting the population as whole, then being more
selective with an emphasis on individuals or group who are more likely to
developing a mental disorder. Thirdly, targeting individuals specifically at
high-risk of mental disorders. As part of prevention to target the general
population there are examples for ways to help adults, children and mothers
during pregnancy. Prenatal and post-natal visits to assist with attachment and
parenting skills, encouragement of breastfeeding, legislating the use of
helmets to prevent head injury and different programs that target married
couples, expecting parents, widows, employees of at-risk occupations and
pre-retires are a few of the prevention efforts that have been put in place
(World Health Organization, 2002).

 MOU1A major problem here is that you have copied these 8 words directly
from the text. You need to paraphrase using your own words. I will not be
reviewing the rest of this text for these errors today – but make sure you
check the whole document.

 MOU2The punctuation should come at the end of the reference.  This error occurs multiple times in the


Another problem is that this reference
is not the one listed in the course outline. It should be: (Little, Akin-Little,
& Couperus, 2012). In your case you are referring to documents referenced
in the article. That is not necessary. It will be easier for you if you just
refer to the original article.


 If you do want to/need to cite an article
within an articule – you need to add the author names + as cited by Little,
Akin-Little, & Couperus, 2012) : The OWL states:

If you use a source that
was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase.
List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary
source in the parentheses.

Johnson argued that…(as cited in Smith, 2003, p.

Note: When citing material
in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to
locate the original material and cite the original source.


you quote text you need to provide the reference immediately after and add the
page number as well. OWL states If you are
directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of
publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by
“p.”). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the
author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones (1998), “Students often had
difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p.

Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style”
(p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

If the author is not named
in a signal phrase, place the author’s last name, the year of publication, and
the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, “Students often had difficulty
using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an
explanation as to why.

Long quotations

Place direct quotations
that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines,
and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch
from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.
Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any
subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.
Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come
after the closing punctuation mark.

Jones’s (1998) study found the following:

Students often had difficulty using APA style,
especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty
could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a
style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)


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