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a. Abnormalities of trophoblasts: Increased syncitial knots, cytotrophoblastic cell proliferation, Fibrinoid degeneration of Villi, basement membrane thickening. b. Abnormalities of stroma: Villous stromal fibrosis, villous edema. c. Abnormalities of villous vessels: Avascular villi, hyper / hypovascular villi, thrombosis of villi. d. Abnormalities of villous maturation: Villous immaturity, accelerated villous maturation.   e. Infarction. f. Calcification g. Any other abnormality: Lymphocytic infiltration, caseous necrosis.  In case of Tuberculosis, microbiological examination of placental abscesses was done by Ziel Neelsen staining for acid fast bacilli. Examination of newborn included weight, Apgar score at 5 min, congenital anomalies.  Feto-placental ratio and Placental coefficient were calculated by the following formulae—  Feto-placental ratio= fetal weight (gm) / placental weight (gm) Placental coefficient= placental weight (gm) / fetal weight (gm) Fetal mode of delivery (normal or Caesarean) was noted. Baby weight, Apgar score, congenital anomalies were seen.   Fetal outcome was compared with the placental pathology. Correlation was made regarding mode of delivery and fetal outcome with the placental pathology. Statistical significance was analyzed by using tests of standard error of difference between two proportions and standard error of difference between two means.  Inclusion criteria 1) Control group- cases of uncomplicated pregnancies without any medical disorders in pregnancy. 2) Pre-eclampsia- a) Mild- blood pressure> 140/90mmhg to 160/100mmhg with proteinuria (1+) and/or pathological odema. b) Severe- blood pressure> 160/110 mmhg with proteinuria(>2+) and/or pathological odema with / without warning symptoms. c) Eclampsia- pre-eclampsia with convulsions. 3) Anemia-  a) Mild- Hb 8-10 gm% b) Moderate- Hb 7 to 7.9gm%. c) Severe- Hb < 6 gm %. 4) Heart disease-  a) Compensated- (NYHA Class 1)- asymptomatic with Heart disease. b) Decompensate- (NHYA class II, III, IV)- symptomatic with Heart disease 5) Diabetes Mellitus- criteria for diagnosis- impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes with 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test (American diabetic association)—   

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