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river comprises of both the main course and the tributaries, carrying the
one-way flow of a significant load of matter in dissolved and particulate
phases from both natural and anthropogenic sources (Bricker and Jones, 1995, Stroomberg et al., 1995; Ward and Elliot, 1995)
and it has been foundations of many civilizations and is responsible for
supporting and maintaining various forms of life. On the other hand, rivers
play a major role in assimilation or transporting municipal and industrial
wastewater and runoff from agricultural land. Municipal and industrial
wastewater discharge constitutes a constant polluting source, whereas surface
runoff is a seasonal phenomenon, largely affected by climate within the basin (Singh et al., 2004). However, Urbanization
has direct impact on water bodies through the settlement around the locality of
water bodies causing encroachment (Pavendan
et al., 2011) and associated industrial development which has exerted
tremendous burden on this vital resource leading to the deterioration of water
quality. Hindon River is main tributary of Yamuna River, one of the major
rivers of India, is confronted with serious danger for its survival mainly
because of various anthropogenic activities. Unfortunately, most of the times,
rives are considered as places to dispose the sewage (Benedini and Tsakiris 2013). This severely polluted river has an
extensive catchment area covering several states and is being widely utilized
for various domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. In addition to this,
the river also acts as a sink for sewage, industrial effluents and agricultural
runoff. However, lack of common policy for discharge of waste into the river as
well as lack of integrated approach by these states towards the restoration of
current state of river, has left this river unsuitable for providing its
designated ecological use (Bhardwaj,
2017). The Quality of water is of vital concerns for human beings, since it
is directly linked to human health and other living creatures. Besides,
urbanization, the material used in religious rituals like flowers, incense
sticks, food, sweets, clothes etc is dispersed in nullahs and Gomti results in
pollution and deterioration of river water quality which supply as portable
water for urban population (Singh et
al., 2005). In the recent past, due to expansion of human population,
excessive extraction of water for industrialization and intensive agricultural
practices, shrinkage of width of river for maximum land use and discharge of
huge amount of wastewater into the river has deteriorated the water quality severely
(Sood et al., 2008). The main anthropogenic sources are disposal of
untreated and partially treated industrial effluents and sewage containing
toxic metals, as well as metal chelates from different industries and
indiscriminate use of heavy metal-containing fertilizers and pesticides in
agricultural fields (Reza and Singh, 2010 ;  Abbasi et al., 1998). The contaminated water can cause various
environmental consequences like adverse effect on plant growth and human health
etc. Therefore, the water pollution has become an important issue to prevent
and control worldwide (Sharma et al.,
2014). The WQI is based on a
mathematical relation that transforms several physico-chemical parameters of
waters into a single number, which, in turn represents the level of water
quality. The concept of water quality to categorize water according to its
degree of purity or pollution dates back to 1848 in Germany (Dojlido and Best 1993; Horton 1965)

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