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A Survey on
Smart Transportation based on VANET:  A
Cyber Physical Systems approach

 

                                            S.Kavitha1,
Prof.P.VenkataKrishna2

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Ph.D Scholar1 Professor2,
Department of Computer Science, Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam

Tirupati, AndhraPradesh, India

 

ABSTRACT

Traffic accidents and congestion problems are becoming worse in these
days. Because of vast number of vehicles on, transportation sector is increasingly
developed this leads to more accidents. One of the solutions to these problems is
intelligent transportation systems, which help to avoid traffic problems. There
is a fast development in the domain of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANET).One of
the major applications of VANET is Intelligent Transportation systems (ITS). Intelligent
Transportation Systems (ITS) is designed to improve transport outcomes such as
road safety, transport productivity, travel reliability, environment
protection, and traffic resilience. An
intelligent transport system (ITS) is aimed to streamline the operations of
vehicles, control vehicle traffic, and help drivers with safety, as well as
supply convenient messages for passengers. Cyber-physical systems are proposed
to improve the performance of a transportation system. This paper introduces a novel
approach based on VANET which provide a basis for transportation system
processes and the information technology requirements for applying
cyber-physical systems to on-road transport systems. Furthermore, this research
mainly focuses on Intelligent Transport Systems, discussed its wide
applications, used technologies and its usage in different fields respectively.

Keywords-Intelligent
transportation system, VANET’s, Cyber Physical systems

I.    Introduction

Intelligent
Transportation System (ITS) as shown in figure 1.uses advanced technologies of
electronics, communications, computers, control and sensing in order to improve
transportation safety, efficiency through transmitting real-time information.

Objectives

1.      
To
improve traffic safety

2.      
To
relieve traffic congestion

3.      
To
improve transportation efficiency

4.      
To
reduce air pollution

5.      
To
increase the energy efficiency

6.      
To
promote the development of related industries

                   Figure 1: Intelligent
Transportation System

The main motive to promote ITS is To Solve Problems caused by Road
transportation. To activate the Economy, To reach an Advanced Information and
Tele communication Society, To Co-ordinate different Transport Modes, To reduce
Driver’s run .The Significance of Promoting ITS is
Breakthrough for Solving Road Transport Problems, Creation of New Industries,
Leader of an Advanced Information and Telecommunications. Vehicular ad hoc
network (VANET) is a main stream to design car-to-car communication mode for
information dissemination. Among research on traffic information dissemination
in VANET, many have proposed on traffic safety driving information such as
early warning information, anti-collision control information for driving
vehicles. Moreover, few studies have focused on automatic generation and
dynamic update of road network traffic information, mainly in terms of the
automatic collection, diffusion, and dissemination of traffic information in a
large-scale road network. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are a part of the
ad hoc mobile networks that establish a wireless connection between vehicles
and roadside devices. These networks have been given particular focus by the research
in the field of networks because of their advantages. They designed
applications that mainly concentrate on road safety and how to make roads more
efficient for vehicles, offering comfort and entertainment to passengers to
their journey. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are constructed by applying
the principles of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) which are the dynamic
creation of a wireless network for data exchange. They are a key component of
intelligent transportation systems. VANETs support a wide range of applications
from one hop to multi hop information dissemination. Rather than moving at
random, vehicles tend to move in some streamline fashion. First, to collect the
real-time traffic information, VANETs can provide the communication
capabilities and real-time traffic information delivery. Both
vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communications are supported in
VANETs to efficiently collect/report traffic updates. As a result, the
collected real-time traffic information can be used for traffic-flow
management, vehicle path planning, and vehicle localization. However, most of
the related works proposed that the incorporated techniques have sufficiently
small delivery delay for real-time information. As vehicular ad hoc networks
rely on short-range communications, the transmission delay cannot be neglected.
Therefore, it becomes compulsory to know how the transmission performance
affects the performance of path planning. Cyber-physical system (CPS) is
composed of a physical system and its corresponding cyber systems that are
tightly coupled at all levels. CPS is used to improve the controllability, efficiency
and reliability of a physical system, such as vehicle collision. It has become
a hot topic in R&D. In fact, most of physical systems and cyber systems are
developed to built and used by human beings in the practical and natural
environments. In past several decades, 3Cs (computing, control, and communication)
technology has been successfully applied to physical systems, like defence,
critical infrastructure, health care, manufacturing and transportation. A CPS
consists a physical system and its cyber systems that are tightly coupled at
all levels. Cyber systems are embedded in all types of physical systems, and
are making the systems more intelligent, e.g., intelligent transportation
systems (ITS), industries, and large cities. The CPSs are becoming more
important in everyday life and their applications are growing continuously. The
benefits of the CPS can be found in several areas: e.g., collision avoidance,
robotic surgery and nano-level manufacturing, operation in en-dangerous   environments,
e.g., fire fighting, and deep-sea navigation, coordination, healthcare
monitoring and delivery. To meet all these high
reliability and safety requirements for these systems, various GPS based
applications been proposed. The mobile internet is modifying the design of
transportation CPS. They built a traffic monitoring system called as mobile millennium,
this system collect traffic data from GPS equipped mobile phones and estimate
traffic condition. The major drawback of this approach is high battery
consumption, each mobile phone should be GPS equipped.  Proposed information technology based CPS
architecture to improve road safety.

II.   Intelligent
Transportation Technologies

 (1) Wireless
Communications: Dedicated
Short-Range Communications (DSRC): It offers communication between the
vehicle and the roadside in specific locations (for example toll plazas)
Applications such as Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) will operate over DSRC.

Continuous Air interface Long and
Medium range (CALM) : CALM provides continuous communications between a
vehicle and the roadside using a variety of communication media, including
cellular and infra-red links. CALM will provide a range of applications,
including vehicle safety and information, as well as entertainment for driver
and passengers.

(2) Computational Technologies: The CTS
(Computational Transportation Science) will develop technologies in which
sensors, traveller’s computers, in-vehicle computers, and computers in the
static infrastructure. The installation of operational systems and processors
in transportation vehicles have also allowed software applications and
artificial intelligence systems to be installed. These systems include internal
control of model based processes, ubiquitous computing and other programs
designed to be integrated into a greater transportation system.

 3) Floating Car Data/Floating Cellular Data:
Available    Floating Car Data Detection
Techniques are,

• Non
Real-time:–

Ø  Manual
surveys.

Ø  Video
recording and manual search

Ø  In-vehicle
data recording

.• Real-time:– Not inductive loop
(without transponder).

Ø  Automatic Number Plate
Recognition (ANPR).

Ø  GPS trace + mobile communications
e.g. GSM

Ø  Radio Signal Triangulation.

Ø  Roadside beacon + dedicated short
range tag.

 (4) Sensing Technologies : Sensing systems for Intelligent Transportation System are vehicle and
infrastructure based networked systems, shown in below figure e.g., Intelligent
vehicle technologies Pavement loops are use to sense the presence of vehicle
demand at intersections and parking lot entrances. Pressure pads are use to
sense the presence of pedestrians waiting to Car passing over inductive loop
cross a roadway. Much of this time is spent waiting at traffic signals.
Many drivers have had the experience of waiting, waiting for a signal to change
to green. Much of this waiting could be avoided if the traffic-signal control
system could detect that a driver was present or if the system could accurately
determine how many vehicles were waiting for the signal. Many times, the
traffic-signal controller is not aware of the vehicles waiting at the traffic
light because the sensor, a simple loop of copper wire embedded in the
pavement, has malfunctioned.

Figure 2:
Car passing over inductive loop

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