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6. PROPERTIES OF SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERShape memory polymers have a much lower thickness, lower cost, and Also reveals 400% recover strains, a property prominent than their metal partners. SMPs also exhibit an outline challenge due to their material shortcoming. Due to its capacity of SMPs to recuperate vast strains joined with its low weight and minimal cost, SMPs have much more advantage than other polymers like it recovers large strains that helps in building new applications in design. Keeping in mind the end goal to better and all the more proficiently it is important to precisely display the thermomechanical conduct of the shape memory polymers. 11Figure 15:- (A) Multi material Grippers Were Fabricated with Different Designs. (B) The Demonstration of the Transition between as Printed Shape and Temporary Shape of Multi material Grippers. (C) The Snapshots of the Process of Grabbing an Object 124D PRINTING IN COMPOSITES24SMP have nonlinear nature, which is responsible for the non-linearly relative deployment against temperature when cooled. This moment can also be witnessed in heating recovery stage.SMPs could recuperate their underived size and shape when heated over their glass change temperatures to make printed dynamic composites by specifically printing shape memory polymer (SMP) filaments in an elastomeric grid to empower programmable shape change of the composites. The same experiment also demonstrated that the dynamic composite could act as joints that connect the inflexible panels to make self-folding structures, including a container, a pyramid and an origami plane. These measurements of the spatial and transient natures of self-collapsing structures were in satisfactory concurrence with simulation derived from FEM with specific UMAT.Figure 16:-3d Printed Shape Memory Polymer Eiffel Tower 12In an experiment, involving 3-D printing SMPs and Hydrogels reversible form-changing structures were presented. This was performed by plunging the shape into water with starting off with low4D PRINTING IN COMPOSITES25water and then with high temperature, afterwards it was cooled down and dried. A FEM recreation was performed to look at thermo-mechanical practices of SMP segments and the swelling dimension of the hydrogel actualizing ABAQUS programming with the guide of UMAT procedures.One of fine property of SMP is that it can be combined to form more complex products through dual-factor mechanism for stereo lithography. 13SMPs can hold two or three shapes, and the change between those is prompted by temperature. Furthermore, temperature change, due to the activation of the electric field, light or mixture the shape of the SMPs changes Also depending upon the structural units that consists of SMPs, it covers wide range of polymers ranging from consistent to biodegradable, elastic to inflexible, soft to hard. SMPs incorporate thermoplastic and thermoset (covalently cross-connected) polymeric materials. SMPs are known to have the capacity to manifest three unique shapes in memory and also SMPs have shown recoverable strains of over 800%.Two vital amounts that are utilized to portray shape-memory impacts are the strain recuperation rate (Rr) and strain fixity rate (Rf). The strain recuperation rate portrays the capacity of the material to retain its fixed shape, while the strain fixity rate depicts the capacity of changing fragments to settle the mechanical twisting6.1 TRIPLE SHAPE MEMORY POLYMERMost customary shape-memory polymers can just hold a perpetual and transitory shape, late innovative advances have permitted the presentation of triple-shape-memory materials. At a specific temperature double shape memory polymer transform its shape from temporary to permanent shape while the triple memory polymer will change their one impermanent shape to4D PRINTING IN COMPOSITES26another at one temperature and will retain its shape to permanent at another temperature. This is typically accomplished by consolidating two twofold shape-memory polymers with various glass change temperatures or by increasing the temperature of modified shaped memory polymer, first over the glass progress temperature and afterward over the dissolving change temperature of the exchanging segment.Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have been vital in additive manufacturing fabricating because of their part in 4D printing. They can be printed in two ways, firstly, multi-materials for multi-arrange shape recuperation and secondly, solitary material for single-organize shape recuperation. It is used to control the variable for multi-organize shape recuperation when it is imprinted in multi-materials. On the other hand, it is difficult to print it in solitary material because of the absence of controlling component. 1

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