5. James Monroe, 1817-1825RepublicanVP – TompkinsSecretary of State – John Quincy AdamsMajor Items:Marshall’s Decisions: McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819; Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 1819; Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 – McCulloch v. Maryland was a Supreme Court case that strengthened federal authority and maintained the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States. Dartmouth College v. Woodward was a Supreme Court Case that protected corporations from state governments. However, this later allowed several chartered corporations to escape public control. Gibbons v. Ogden was a Supreme Court Case that upheld congress’s sole power to regulate interstate commerce. Acquisition of Florida from Spain, 1819 – Many believed that it was destined for Florida to become part of America, since western Florida had already been claimed during the War of 1812. When an epidemic of revolutions began in South America, Andrew Jackson saw an opportunity to use the excuse that hostile indians and fugitive slaves were hiding in Florida to seize Florida (without telling Monroe). He hung 2 Indian chiefs, executed 2 British subjects, captured the 2 most important Spanish posts in the area, and deposed of the Spanish governor. Although there was a general consensus to discipline Jackson, his actions lead to the Adams-Onis Treaty.Transcontinental or Adam-Oñis Treaty, 1819 – the Transcontinental or Adams-Onis Treaty transferred Florida to the U.S. and established the southern border of the Louisiana Territory. Spain would keep territory from Texas to California while the U.S. would receive the Oregon Territory. Missouri Compromise, 1820 – the Missouri Compromise was a compromise that allowed Mississippi to enter the union as a slave state, but forbid the rest of the Louisiana Purchase to become slave states. The compromise also split Maine from Massachusetts, preserving the balance between slave and free states. Although a compromise was reached, no one party was completely happy with the results of the compromise. The compromise brought back the issue of slavery. Monroe Doctrine, 1823 – the Monroe Doctrine was a declaration from James Monroe that warned the other European power to refrain from seeking new territories in the Americas. Although the U.S. lacked the power to back up the statement, they had allied with Britain, who protected the Americas because they wanted unrestricted access to Latin American markets. The Monroe Doctrine was mainly for the protection of the U.S., since other major powers settling close to the U.S. would be dangerous. It was also a product of post 1812 nationalistic energy. Sectional Tariff, 1824 – the Sectional Tariff of 1824 was a protective tariff designed to protect American products from cheaper British goods. These goods were mainly agricultural goods, iron goods, and textiles. Favorite Sons Election Jackson, J. Q. Adams, Crawford, Clay, 1824 -In the 1824 election, there were four main candidates for the presidency: Jackson, Adams, Crawford, and Clay. While Jackson won the popular vote, the electoral college was tied, sending the vote to the House. However, Clay was speaker of the house and hated Jackson, leading him to team up with Adams as long as Clay became secretary of state. 6. John Quincy Adams, 1825-1829National RepublicanVP – John C. CalhounSecretary of State – Henry ClayMajor Items:”Corrupt Bargain” – the Corrupt Bargain was a deal between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to ensure Jackson did not become president. Since Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House and the election went to the House of Representatives, the vote went in Adam’s favor. The corrupt bargain became the rallying cry for the Jacksonians who managed to attain a majority of the popular vote. Erie Canal, 1825 – the construction of the Erie Canal was completed during Adam’s time as president. The canal connected the Great Lakes to the east coast, allowing different farm products to flow towards the east. Tariff of Abominations – the Tariff of Abominations was a heavy tax on imports implemented in 1828. The tariff evoked much anger from the southerners, since southern farmers did not gain any protection from the tariff. Instead, they were forced to pay higher prices for manufacturers, leading to the belief that they felt as if they were being discriminated against. Calhoun’s Exposition and Protest, 1828 – John C. Calhoun was a top political theorist who wrote The South Carolina Exposition in response to the Tariff of Abominations. Calhoun declared the tariff as unconstitutional and unjust, and pushed for the idea that the states should nullify the tariff. Additionally, Calhoun used the tariff as an example of the federal government encroaching on states rights. 7. Andrew Jackson, 1829-1837DemocratVP – John C. Calhoun and Martin Van BurenMajor Items:Jacksonian Democracy – the Jacksonian Democracy marked the rise of the common man and created a general distaste for aristocracy. The Jacksonian Democracy extended voting rights to those without property, allowing the common man to have more influence within society. Tariffs of 1832 and 1833 – the Tariff of 1832 served to continue the Tariff of Abominations while getting rid of the worst “abominations.” However, the south were still not satisfied with the tariff, leading to the creation of the Compromise Tariff of 1833 and the Nullification Crisis. The Compromise Tariff of 1833 tried to solve the Nullification Crisis by gradually lowering the tariffs over a period of ten years. Despite the southerners approving of the compromise, the tariff received much opposition from the New England and middle states. The 2nd Bank of the United States (due to expire in 1836) – when Henry Clay pushed for the Bank of the United States’ recharter, Jackson vetoed, claiming the bank was unconstitutional. Jackson had sided with the common labor people rather than the monopolistic and aristocratic peoples. However, Jackson’s decision to remove all federal deposits from the bank ensured the bank’s downfall and lead to the usage of pet banks. Formation of the Whig Party, 1832 – the Whigs were created in 1832 as a group that opposed the policies of Andrew Jackson. They portrayed Jackson as a monopolistic king, reversing the roles that Jackson portrayed; now, Jackson and his Vice President were seen as aristocratic, while the Whig party was seen as the defenders of the common man. 8. Martin Van Buren, 1837-1841DemocratVP – Richard M. JohnsonMajor Items:Panic of 1837 – the Panic of 1837 was the result of high grain prices, bank failures, and many of Andrew Jackson’s proposals to curb over speculation of land and transportation. In an effort to make things better, Van Buren proposed the Divorce Bill, which pulled the treasury funds out of the banking system altogether. However, this only contracted the credit supply and made things worse. Specie Circular, no Bank of the United States – Specie Circular was the replacing of paper money with metallic currency in the purchase for public lands. It was issued after smaller state banks had printed large amounts of unreliable paper money, which lead to much land speculation in the west and eventually to the Panic of 1837. Unsound financing by state governments – During Van Buren’s presidency, many banks failed due to the Panic of 1837 and Specie Circular. His responses to many financial crises such as the Divorce Bill only caused more panic and instability within the government’s financial situation. His financial choices made him very unpopular, and was only re-elected because there was no other favorable alternative. Ante-Bellum Period, 1840-18609. William Henry Harrison, 1841WhigVP – John TylerSecretary of State – Daniel Webster10. John Tyler, 1841-1845Anti-Jackson Democrat ran as VP on Whig ticketSecretary of State – Daniel WebsterMajor Items:Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 1842 – the Webster-Ashburton Treaty ended the Aroostook War and settled the border issues between Britain and the United States. The United States got more land than Britain, but Britain got the Halifax-Quebec route. The treaty also banned the slave trade, but only on the ocean. Vetoes Clay’s bill for 3rd Bank of the United States – Clay wanted to create a nationalistic program that would end the independent treasury system and create a new national bank. However, Tyler vetoed the bank, leading to Clay trying to create a fiscal corporation. Tyler vetoed his idea once again, leading to Tyler being expelled from the Whigs and an impeachment attempt. Canadian Border set at 45th parallel – The setting of the Canadian Border was a result of the Aroostook War, which began in 1839. The disputed territory of northern Maine was home to a series of conflicts between American and Canadian lumberjacks.11. James K. Polk, 1845-1849original “dark horse” candidateDemocratVP – DallasMajor Items:Manifest Destiny – Manifest destiny was the belief that the United States was destined to spread across the entirety of the North America. It was often used as a justification for the expansions that occurred during the mid-nineteenth century. The term was developed during the 1840s and 1850s. Texas becomes a state, 1845 – Prior to the annexation of Texas, U.S. relation with Mexico were already strained. However, after the annexation of Texas, diplomatic relation were severed. The annexation of Texas eventually led to the Mexican War, as Mexico believed Texas was still their territory. Oregon boundary settled, 1846 – Oregon was a territory jointly held by Britain and the United States, the latter hoping to occupy all of Oregon with the slogan “fifty-four or fight”. However, Polk eventually settled on the forty-ninth parallel as a compromise with the BritishMexican War, 1846-1848 – The Mexican War began from Polk’s impatience. He sent troops close to the border between Mexico and the United States, but it was Mexico that attacked first. The war helped generals such as Zachary Taylor gain prominence to eventually succeed in future government positions. Eventually, the war ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. After the War, the U.S. was treated with new friendliness and respect. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 – the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican War. Mexico ended up ceding the territory from Texas to Oregon, a gain in land larger than the Louisiana Purchase. In return, the United States would pay $18.25 million and assume the debts from the war. Wilmot Proviso – the Wilmot Proviso was an amendment that attempted to prohibit slavery in the territories won from the Mexican War. First introduced by David Wilmot, the amendment only served to escalate tensions between the North and South. The Wilmot Proviso was also one of the factors that helped contribute to the civil war. 12. Zachary Taylor, 1849-1850WhigVP – Millard Fillmore13. Millard Fillmore, 1850-1853WhigSecretary of State – Daniel WebsterMajor Items:Compromise of 1850 – The Compromise of 1850 settled the disputes over slavery in the new territories of California, New Mexico, and Utah. It allowed California as a slave state and opened the other two states to popular sovereignty. In return, it enacted a stricter fugitive slave law. Both the North and the South were not pleased by the compromise. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 1850 (Britain and U. S. agree not to expand in Central America if the canal is built) – The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was a treaty between Great Britain and the United States. The treaty ensured that the two nations would work together to protect Central America’s neutrality (no other power would gain control of it). It was also an agreement that neither nation would attempt to control any ismuthian waterway. However, it was later revoked by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901. Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852 – Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. The novel revealed the horrors of slavery and eventually contributed to the start of the Civil War. It also heightened the tensions between the North and South and helped advocate for the abolitionist cause. 14. Franklin Pierce, 1853-1857DemocratVP – KingMajor Items:Kansas-Nebraska Bill, 1854 – the Kansas-Nebraska Bill revoked the 1820 Missouri Compromise and proposed that both Kansas and Nebraska would be open to popular sovereignty. The Bill was proposed by Stephen Douglas as he tried to integrate Nebraska into the Union and create a northern transcontinental railroad. The Bill also worsened the sectional rift to the point where republicans were not allowed south of the Mason-Dixon line. popular sovereignty – popular sovereignty was the idea that the people of a state should decide whether or not to allow slavery. The idea became popular during the period before the civil war. Many northerners were against the idea because they feared that it would spread slavery even further. Japan opened to world trade, 1853 – After 1852 when Matthew C. Perry was sent to japan to request free trade and friendly relations, the Treaty of Kanagawa was signed, which ended Japan’s economic isolation. It was the first time in 200 years that an American consulate was established in Japan. Underground Railroad – the Underground Railroad was a network of volunteers who helped slaves escape from the south and reach Canada. Many southerners were opposed to the underground railroad, and called for a stricter fugitive slave law to be enacted. The underground railroad was also the setting of the famous stories of Harriet Tubman.Bleeding Kansas – Bleeding Kansas was a another name for the civil war that broke out within Kansas, which was partly due to the Lecompton constitution. The civil war was fought over the issue of the territory’s status on slavery and was fought intermittently. It eventually merged with the larger civil war. Ostend Manifesto, 1854 – the Ostend Manifesto stemmed from the United State’s desire to obtain Cuba from the Spanish. The manifesto was a secret plan to obtain Cuba, either by purchase or by “wresting” the territory from Cuba. However, it failed and was quickly abandoned when leaked due to opposition from the north. 15. James Buchanan, 1857-1861DemocratVP- BreckinridgeMajor Items:Dred Scott decision, 1857 – The Dred Scott decision was a supreme court case that took place between Dred Scott and Stanford. The supreme court decided that Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in the territories. The court case also established that slaves would be considered as property and therefore, were not citizens of the United States. Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858 – the Lincoln-Douglas Debates were a series of debates for the spot of senator in Illinois. During the debate, Lincoln asked whether the state or the government should decide slavery’s future, and Douglas replied with the Freeport Doctrine, stating that territorial legislatures would decide slavery’s future. Douglas ended up winning the election, but Lincoln gained support for when he would later run for president.